Animal Dads Across the Globe

By Ashley Junger, Earthwatch Multimedia Intern

There’s a lot of responsibility in being a parent, especially when you’re battling loss of habitat and food resources. This Father’s Day, Earthwatch wants to honor animal dads across the globe that are struggling and highlight ways you can help!

Whether it’s feeding hungry mouths, chasing after curious wanderers, or showing the ropes, wildlife parents have a lot on their plate. Around the world, whether they’re human or animal — parents work hard to provide for their kids.

To celebrate Father’s Day, we here at Earthwatch want to highlight some of the animal kingdom’s hardest working dads. Beyond just dealing with the regular difficulties of fatherhood, these dads also have to battle habitat loss, pollution, fewer food sources, and climate change.

But these species aren’t totally on their own. Earthwatch has volunteers stationed all over the globe to help scientists study and conserve these environments. If you want to help out these dads (and moms!) too, join an Earthwatch expedition!

1. Flammulated Owls

These tiny dads are hardly bigger than your hand, but they work hard to provide for their family. Throughout the western U.S., flammulated and other small forest owls can be found in quiet mountainous forests. While the mom Flammulated owl ensures everything is safe and cozy in the nest, dad ventures out into the night to bring home the bacon – err bugs. He’s the sole provider until the eggs hatch, then he and mom will take turns hunting and babysitting. These owl dads work hard to provide for and protect their fluffy offspring until they’re ready to leave the nest – sometimes even mentoring them for weeks after – but this tough job is getting even harder.

Scientists predict that aspen forests may disappear in many areas this century, eliminating the tree cavities flammulated owls, and many other species of small forest owls, depend on. Additionally, climate change is poised to disturb the food sources for these owls, making it harder for them to support their little families. Earthwatch, partnered with HawkWatch International, is working to build up the limited information currently known about Flammulated owls, and many other owl species, like the Whiskered Screech-owl, Western Screech-owl, and the Northern Saw-whet owl, while monitoring the changes in their critical habitats on the expedition Following Forest Owls in the Western U.S.

2. Chimpanzees

For a long time, chimpanzees were thought to be absentee fathers, but recent studies have shown that chimpanzee dads are actually very interested in their kids. Mom takes care of most of the parental duties, but these dads aren’t just monkeying around (chimpanzees are apes, but bear with me). While chimpanzees are a promiscuous species, these dads still invest time and care into their kids. These dads hang out with the mother of their kids, and spend time grooming and caring for their offspring. They make sure to watch out for their babies, but human encroachment and climate change are threatening their way of life.

Many essential habitats of chimpanzees across Africa are being intruded on by human development, limiting the areas that chimpanzees can safely forage and care for their young. Along with limited space, chimpanzees face limitations in how much food forests are producing. In the Budongo Forest Reserve in Western Uganda, the largest area of tropical rainforest that persists in East Africa, fruit production is declining, putting chimpanzees and humans in conflict for resources. Earthwatch volunteers are monitoring this community of chimpanzees, and the forest on which they rely, in the expedition Investigating Threats to Chimps in Uganda.

3. Magellanic and African Penguins

Penguin parents’ distinctive waddle and dedication have captured the hearts of many animal lovers. The Magellanic and African penguins avoid the harsh cold that is usually associated with penguin habitat, preferring to stick to warm beaches or islands. Magellanic penguins, named for Ferdinand Magellan who first recorded them in 1519, populate the Atlantic and Pacific shores of South America. African penguins, as their name suggests, stick to the beaches of South Africa and Namibia. These penguin dads, like many of their cousins, team up with their mates to raise a pair of eggs. Through the 40-day incubation period, these feathered fathers alternate with their mate between brooding the eggs and hunting in the ocean – traveling incredible distances, sometimes over 300 miles.

Penguin parenting is already hardcore, but commercial fishing and pollution are making the job even more challenging. Penguins have to compete with fisheries for food, and much of the food and habitat they can find has been contaminated with oil, lead, or pesticides. These threats make it even more difficult to be a good penguin dad, but Earthwatch volunteers are trying to change the tide. Volunteers in Patagonia are recording the locations and behaviors of these seabirds during their foraging trips to aid in establishing regulations protecting these dads and their marine habitats on the expedition Trailing Penguins in Patagonia. Across the Atlantic, volunteers in South Africa are monitoring nesting sites on Robben Island to determine how prey availability and long-term climate change affect penguins’ ability to breed on the expedition South African Penguins.

4. Gray Wolves

Male wolves have a reputation for being loners, but in reality, these guys are definitely family men. Wolf packs are strikingly similar to a nuclear family with a mom, dad, kids, and some ‘aunts’ and ‘uncles.’ Each spring, when mom hunkers down in a den to have her puppies, dad stands guard. He keeps the den protected, and, along with the rest of the pack, hunts for elk, deer, moose, or bison to feed mom and babies. As the pups become more independent, dad takes on the role of teacher and mentor, helping them learn to be full-fledged wolves.

While wolves are a popular species, they’ve largely been chased out of their habitats. In the 1920s, wolves had all but been eliminated from North America; however, environmental laws in the 1970s helped to preserve this species and allowed them to re-expand into some of their old territories. Researchers are investigating how several forces of nature, including wolves and fire, are affecting biodiversity and ecosystem functions in Western Lakes National Park in Alberta, Canada. These researchers, working in partnership with the Blackfoot First Nation, are collecting data to understand exactly how these complex interactions between apex forces of nature and the rest of the food chain interact on the expedition Restoring Fire, Wolves, and Bison to the Canadian Rockies.

5. Whooping Cranes

Our last dad is the Whooping Crane. These tall dads pick a partner for life and travel back and forth between the Gulf Coast of Texas and Alberta, Canada, each year accompanied by mom and their baby. During the spring in Alberta, the dads and moms make a nest by piling up vegetation in the middle of a shallow wetland, then stomp the vegetation down. The pair takes turns incubating the clutch, but crane dads take the lead on defending their breeding territory, flapping and hissing at intruders. After a month, the eggs hatch and the babies begin swimming and walking in just a few hours. The hatchlings stick with their parents for about a year, migrating with them to Texas before finding their own mate.

While these birds are hard to miss at nearly five feet tall and weighing over 200 pounds, they are rare. The current whooping crane population is just 400 individuals, a small fraction of the 20,000 cranes that used to exist in North America at the height of their population. One of the major factors that will affect Whooping Cranes as they make a return is the lack of suitable habitat. Their coastal landscape is being encroached upon by development, bringing along pollution and a reduction in food resources. At the same time, climate change is wreaking havoc on these areas. Earthwatch volunteers are helping to collect data on the saltmarsh ecosystems these birds rely on, as well as studying how environmental changes are affecting this endangered species on the expedition Protecting Whooping Cranes and Coastal Habitats in Texas.

New Protections For Humpback Whales in Costa Rica

Nuevas protecciones para las ballenas jorobadas en Costa Rica

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By Dianna Bell with translation by Sarai Zelada
Por Dianna Bell con traducción de Sarai Zelada

On May 4th, the Costa Rican government announced an exclusion zone for heavy maritime traffic in Golfo Dulce, a narrow inlet on the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica, and a critical habitat for spotted and bottlenose dolphins as well as a breeding ground for humpback whales. This zone is a major step toward the conservation of humpback whales and other marine species in the Eastern Pacific, and was achieved through the leadership of Dr. Hector Guzman of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) accompanied and informed by data collected by the team of researchers and volunteers on the Earthwatch expedition Marine Mammals and Predators in Costa Rica.

Earthwatch lead scientist Lenin Oviedo (soon to be Dr. Oviedo, as he presents his dissertation in just a couple of weeks!), explained what this exclusion zone means for marine life in Golfo Dulce and what steps he hopes to take next in further securing this ecosystem.

And just to note, this is our first bilingual blog post. You will notice each section in both english and spanish. By including the native language of the country where this research took place, we hope to expand the reach and knowledge of this important environmental protection.

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El 4 de mayo, Costa Rica creó zona de exclusión de tráfico marítimo pesado en Golfo Dulce, una entrada estrecha en la costa sur del Pacífico Costarricense, y un hábitat crítico para delfines manchados y mulares, así como un área de cría para las ballenas jorobadas. Esta zona es un gran paso hacia la conservación de las ballenas jorobadas y otras especies marinas en el Pacífico Oriental, y se logró gracias al liderazgo del Dr. Héctor Guzmán del Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) acompañado e informado por los datos recopilados por el equipo de investigadores y voluntarios en la expedición de Earthwatch Marine Mammals and Predators in Costa Rica.

El científico principal de Earthwatch Lenin Oviedo (que pronto será el Dr. Oviedo, ya que presenta su disertación en solo un par de semanas!), explicó lo que significa esta zona de exclusión para la vida marina en Golfo Dulce y qué pasos espera seguir para proteger aún más este ecosistema.

Y solo para notar, esta es nuestra primera publicación de blog bilingüe. Notará cada sección en inglés y español. Al incluir el idioma nativo del país donde se realizó esta investigación, esperamos ampliar el alcance y el conocimiento de esta importante protección ambiental.
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Earthwatch: What does this new exclusion zone mean for marine life in Golfo Dulce?
¿Qué significa esta nueva zona de exclusión para la vida marina en Golfo Dulce?

Lenin Oviedo: The exclusion zone is specifically designed to avoid collision of big maritime traffic, specifically big cargo ships, with humpback whales – mothers and calves. The biggest mortality issue with humpback whales, and with whales in general, is ship collisions. So this is just part of the strategy that we have been pursuing in order to conserve marine mammals in Golfo Dulce and Costa Rica. It’s not yet a Marine Protected Area, which is what we want. That’s our target. There are big big steps we have to make towards that. But this exclusion zone is providing a shipping channel that’s going to be away from the critical calving habitat of the humpback whales in Golfo Dulce.

Lenin Oviedo

Lenin Oviedo

The town of Golfito is one of the biggest commercial ports in the Pacific Ocean, and there are many plans for marinas inside the gulf. And if one marina is established, then that will be an open window for complete coastal development. And it will start with cruise ships and then who knows. So this is a really major achievement that we are very happy to have been part of.

La zona de exclusión está específicamente diseñada para evitar colisiones de gran tráfico marítimo, específicamente los grandes buques de carga, con las ballenas jorobadas: madres y terneros. El mayor problema de mortalidad de las ballenas jorobadas, y de las ballenas en general, es la colisión con los buques. Entonces, esto es solo parte de la estrategia que hemos estado siguiendo para conservar a los mamíferos marinos en Golfo Dulce y Costa Rica. Todavía no es un área marina protegida, que es lo que queremos. Ese es nuestro objetivo. Hay grandes pasos que tenemos que hacer hacia eso. Pero esta zona de exclusión está creando un canal de envío que estará lejos del sitio de parto crítico de las ballenas jorobadas en Golfo Dulce.

La ciudad de Golfito es uno de los puertos comerciales más grandes en el Océano Pacífico, y hay muchos planes para puertos deportivos dentro del golfo. Y si se establece un puerto deportivo, entonces dará paso al desarrollo costero completo. Y comenzará con cruceros y luego quién sabe. Así que este es un logro realmente importante del que estamos muy felices de haber formado parte.

EW: How did you feel when you received the news that the exclusion zone was secured?
¿Cómo se sintió al recibir la noticia de que la zona de exclusión estaba asegurada?

LO: On May 4th, it was announced that the government of Costa Rica had made a law that the exclusion zone is now a legal provision from the country. I was really really happy. I was happy. It’s not only happiness – there’s a bit of pride in that like ‘oh my god, we did it!’ But you know, besides that, it’s a bit of a relief also. Because when you get to work in those places, and you get to spend more than ten years in that area, you only hope that things can still be okay and that you can keep seeing your whales, your dolphins, the animals that have given you so much joy and so much happiness because basically, I owe them my Ph.D. So you can only hope to keep seeing the healthy nicely big dolphins or big whales, and being proud to say that some of the humpback whales that are swimming along the pacific are actually tica [females born in Costa Rica] whales because they were born in Costa Rica or they were born in Panama. They are Central American whales that are going all over the world when they migrate, so that’s kind of nice. So I was very happy. I have to say that I work with an awesome team of people, local people. They were very enthusiastic, and it’s really cool. It was really really cool.

Oviedo - credit unknown (10)El 4 de mayo, se anunció que el gobierno de Costa Rica había firmado un decreto ejecutivo que establecía la zona de exclusión en un ordenamiento legal del país. Estaba realmente muy feliz. Estaba feliz. No es solo felicidad, hay un poco de orgullo en eso como ‘¡Dios mío, lo hicimos!’ Pero sabes, además de eso, también es un alivio. Porque cuando trabajas en esos lugares y llegas a pasar más de diez años en esa zona, solo esperas que las cosas sigan bien y que puedas seguir viendo tus ballenas, tus delfines, los animales que te han dado tanta alegría y tanta felicidad porque, básicamente, les debo mi Ph.D. Así que solo puedes esperar a ver los delfines y las ballenas sanos y grandes, y estar orgullosos de decir que algunas de las ballenas jorobadas que están nadando a lo largo del Pacífico son en realidad ballenas ticas porque nacieron en Costa Rica o nacieron en Panamá. Son ballenas centroamericanas que viajan por todo el mundo cuando migran, así que eso es bonito. Entonces estaba muy feliz. Debo decir que trabajo con un increíble equipo de personas, gente local. Estaban muy entusiastas, y es realmente genial. Fue realmente muy genial.

EW: What is the difference between an exclusion zone and a marine protected area?
¿Cuál es la diferencia entre una zona de exclusión y un área marina protegida?

A humpback whale breaching. (Courtesy Lenin Oviedo)

LO: The marine protected area is much more than an exclusion zone, which are specifically designed for maritime traffic. A marine protected area will give a major scope of protection to particular areas that are important for the survival of these species. It’s not only that they will exclude maritime traffic, but they will safeguard particular geographical parts of the humpback whale range within Golfo Dulce. This is just a major step, it’s a huge step, but there are many other things that we need to do to achieve our goal of obtaining a marine protected area. The thing is that in the process of understanding what’s going on in Golfo Dulce, we are at the risk of having habitat destruction due to the coastal development that might take over the whole area. Golfo Dulce is beautiful. The scenery there is amazingly beautiful. But it is precisely this beauty that can be capitalized.

El área marina protegida es mucho más que una zona de exclusión, que está específicamente diseñada para el tráfico marítimo. Un área marina protegida brindará un mayor grado de protección a áreas particulares que son importantes para la supervivencia de estas especies. No es solo que excluirán el tráfico marítimo, sino que protegerán partes geográficas particulares del área de ballenas jorobadas dentro de Golfo Dulce. Este es solo un paso importante, es un gran paso, pero hay muchas otras cosas que debemos hacer para lograr nuestro objetivo de obtener un área marina protegida. El problema es que, en el proceso de comprender lo que está sucediendo en Golfo Dulce, corremos el riesgo de tener destrucción del hábitat debido al desarrollo costero que podría invadir el área completa. Golfo Dulce es hermoso. El paisaje allí es increíblemente hermoso. Pero es precisamente esta belleza la que puede ser capitalizada.


EW: So it sounds like you guys are kind of in a race against time.
Entonces parece que ustedes están en una carrera contra el tiempo.

LO: Sometimes it is frustrating because it is hard not going as fast as we want. And it is this major communication between the decision makers and this technical side of scientific working to apply knowledge into conservation efforts and decision making. Sometimes it’s hard for us to see that the decision makers might not understand and might not see what we see. And sometimes we just lose it, like ‘How can you not see that we have babies in this land, for god’s sake?’

A veces es frustrante porque es difícil no ir tan rápido como queremos. Y es esta gran comunicación entre los que toman las decisiones y esta parte técnica del trabajo científico para aplicar el conocimiento a los esfuerzos de conservación y la toma de decisiones. A veces es difícil para nosotros ver que los que toman las decisiones quizás no comprendan y no vean lo que vemos. Y a veces simplemente lo perdemos, como ‘¿Cómo no puedes ver que tenemos crías en esta tierra?, por el amor de Dios.

EW: What role did Earthwatch volunteers play in securing this exclusion zone?
¿Qué rol tomaron los voluntarios de Earthwatch para asegurar esta zona de exclusión?

LO: The main objective of our project in Golfo Dulce since we started out with Earthwatch has always been to purely identify the critical habitat of all the cetaceans that are inhabiting the area. This is critical habitat for the bottlenose dolphin, the spotted dolphin, and for humpback whales. For the dolphins, it’s a foraging critical habitat. That’s where they get their energy. For the humpback whales, it’s the calving habitat. That’s where they safeguard their babies. In order to know everything that I’m telling you right now, we have to be in the sea. We have to carefully observe the behavior of these species, and we have to carefully take data that will allow us to say scientifically that I saw what I saw, and these were the conditions by the time I saw that and these were the conditions by the time there were no animals. That way we can compare. Well, every single volunteer was responsible of handling this kind of data. Every single set of GPS coordinates that they gave us, every single animal count… All this is translated right now into information that was provided in order to inform conservation.

And there’s another side to this story. It’s the side of the local involvement. Earthwatch has been a platform for community members to actually get to work in safeguarding their home and empowering them to be owners of that natural heritage. It’s not only about whales and dolphins, it’s a lot about humans and how they feel about whales and dolphins in Golfo Dulce.

Earthwatch volunteers document dolphins during the expedition Marine Mammals and Predators in Costa Rica.

Earthwatch volunteers document dolphins during the expedition Marine Mammals and Predators in Costa Rica.

El objetivo principal de nuestro proyecto en Golfo Dulce desde que comenzamos con Earthwatch siempre ha sido identificar de forma pura el hábitat crítico de todos los cetáceos que habitan el área. Este es un hábitat crítico para el delfín mular, el delfín moteado y para las ballenas jorobadas. Para los delfines, es un hábitat crítico de alimentación. De ahí es donde obtienen su energía. Para las ballenas jorobadas, es su hábitat de parto. Ahí es donde protegen a sus crías. Para saber todo lo que te estoy diciendo ahora, tenemos que estar en el mar. Tenemos que observar con cuidado el comportamiento de estas especies, y tenemos que tomar los datos con cuidado lo cuales nos permitirán decir científicamente que vi lo que vi, y estas fueron las condiciones en el momento en que lo vi y estas fueron las condiciones en el tiempo cuando no había animales. De esa forma podemos comparar. Bueno, cada voluntario era responsable de manejar este tipo de datos. Cada conjunto de coordenadas de GPS que nos dieron, cada conteo de animales… Todo esto se traduce ahora en información que se proporcionó para informar la conservación.

Y hay otro lado de esta historia. Es el lado de la participación local. Earthwatch ha sido una plataforma para que los miembros de la comunidad realmente trabajen para proteger su hogar y empoderarlos para ser dueños de ese patrimonio natural. No se trata solo de las ballenas y los delfines, sino también de los humanos y de cómo se sienten sobre las ballenas y los delfines en Golfo Dulce.


EW: Now that the exclusion zone has been secured, will the research change to focus on collecting the data required to achieve a marine protected area?
Ahora que se ha asegurado la zona de exclusión, ¿cambiará la investigación para concentrarse en la recopilación de los datos necesarios para lograr un área marina protegida?

LO: The project, as everything, has to evolve. We already have good and sound answers for our initial research question, but we’ve still got a lot to do and much to uncover. For instance, keeping on the subject of humpback whales, we now understand that Golfo Dulce is an important calving habitat, but it’s only part of a major calving habitat in Central America. Let’s say we achieve a marine protected area and we achieve some other major protection strategies for our humpback whales in Golfo Dulce. What will happen if other places in the whole Central American range don’t have these same protections? Now, we are looking to a regional stage in order to increase the protection of our whales, and it’s the same with our dolphins.

We believe that our bottlenose dolphins are the resource population of many small populations along Panama and Nicaragua. Now, we have to widen our view and not only concentrate on Golfo Dulce, but to see where exactly these individuals go. What if they’re going to places that are not really as safe as Golfo Dulce? They know no borders. For them, it’s home, it’s critical habitat. It doesn’t matter if it’s located in Panama, Costa Rica, or in Nicaragua. So understanding where our dolphins come from, why they like Golfo Dulce, whether or not the Golfo Dulce population is connected with some other population, and what do we need to do to actually preserve these species – that would be our next step.

El proyecto, como todo, tiene que evolucionar. Ya tenemos respuestas buenas y sólidas para nuestra pregunta de investigación inicial, pero todavía tenemos mucho por hacer y mucho por descubrir. Por ejemplo, en el tema de las ballenas jorobadas, ahora entendemos que Golfo Dulce es un hábitat importante de parto, pero es solo parte de un gran hábitat de parto en América Central. Digamos que logremos tener un área marina protegida y logremos algunas otras estrategias de protección importantes para nuestras ballenas jorobadas en Golfo Dulce. ¿Qué pasará si otros lugares en el área de América Central no tienen estas mismas protecciones? Ahora, estamos buscando una plataforma regional para aumentar la protección de nuestras ballenas, y es lo mismo con nuestros delfines.

Creemos que nuestros delfines mulares son la población de la cual provienen muchas poblaciones pequeñas a lo largo de Panamá y Nicaragua. Ahora, debemos ampliar nuestra vista y no solo concentrarnos en Golfo Dulce, sino también ver exactamente a dónde van estos delfines. ¿Qué si van a lugares que no son tan seguros como Golfo Dulce? Ellos no conocen fronteras. Para ellos, es su hogar, es un hábitat crítico. No importa si está ubicado en Panamá, Costa Rica o en Nicaragua. Entonces, entender de dónde vienen nuestros delfines, por qué les gusta Golfo Dulce, si la población de Golfo Dulce está conectada o no con otra población, y qué necesitamos hacer para preservar realmente estas especies, ese sería nuestro siguiente paso.

EW: Is there anything else you wanted to add?
¿Hay algo más que quiera agregar?

LO: It’s important to say thank you to all my volunteers – to every single one of them. To let them know that this exclusion zone is as much of their achievement as it is our achievement and as it is everyone in Costa Rica’s achievement. It’s important to let them know that we consider them part of the team, and we are so proud to say we did it. We did a great job all together.*

Es importante agradecer a todos mis voluntarios, a cada uno de ellos. Para hacerles saber que esta zona de exclusión es tanto su logro así como es nuestro y también logro de todos en Costa Rica. Es importante hacerles saber que los consideramos parte del equipo, y estamos muy orgullosos de decir que lo hicimos. Hicimos un gran trabajo todos juntos.*

*This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity.
*Esta entrevista ha sido revisada y condensada para mayor claridad.

Of Brownies, Bears, and Birthdays

A researcher examines huckleberry plants.

A researcher examines huckleberry plants.

By Scott Kania, Earthwatch CEO

Last August, I turned 65 years old. I’m in complete denial about turning old – it’s just a number and all of that stuff. I had no interest in sitting around listening to people remind me of how many birthdays I’d had. When my team told me we needed a couple more people on our new grizzly project, Climate Change, Huckleberries, and Grizzly Bears in Montana, I jumped (or whatever 64-year-olds do to show excitement) at the chance. Luckily, my daughter Kristen had some time before grad school started and wanted to join me. The adventure was on.

I’d been to Montana before, but I’d never heard of Swan Valley. Nestled between the Bob Marshall Wilderness and Mission Range, Swan Valley is a hidden gem away from the tourist madness of Glacier National Park and the recreational buzz of Flathead Lake. As the name implies, there are mountains on both sides of the valley, nearly as breathtaking as Glacier National Park, but much more peaceful and remote.

Our Earthwatch team was small, but spirited. Besides Kristen and myself, there was Sue – an incredibly fit and adventurous woman from British Columbia, who liked her teardrop camper so much, she eschewed a bed in the house and slept there instead. We also had two women from Japan on the team: Yamata and Mei. They were both fun-loving and endlessly curious, and great cooks.

Scott with his teammates in Montana.

Scott with his teammates in Montana.

I saw my first grizzly in Glacier on my honeymoon many years ago. Yes, we were in grizzly country on our honeymoon, but that’s a different story. The bear was a ways off across a valley, but slowly heading our way. He was stopping to pull down 20-foot-tall lodgepole pines, and exploring the roots for grubs and ants, I suppose. What a magnificent animal – so powerful and amazingly graceful. We were a safe distance away, so we were able to enjoy watching him forage. Later that day, we made our way back along the same trail. It occurred to me that the bear, continuing on his path, would be intersecting the trail. He was likely to be long gone, but we still did a lot of loud talking and car key jingling, so as not to surprise him. Everyone knows that grizzlies love berries and salmon, but I also think they have an eye for beauty, based on the incredible places they choose to live.

Speaking of berries, according to our researchers, huckleberries are an important food resource for grizzly bears, comprising about 15 percent of their diet in Glacier National Park and surrounding areas. These high-energy fruits are crucial for bears in their effort to gain weight for winter hibernation and reproduction. Changes in climate, however, such as warming temperatures, varying levels of rainfall, increases in insects that damage leaves, and declines in pollinator populations can alter the availability and size of these berries. In the northwestern U.S., climate change threatens to alter the timing and abundance of huckleberries. What remains unknown, however, is which changes in particular will have the most significant impacts and how they interact.

A female grizzly with her two cubs.

A female grizzly with her two cubs.

The research we were supporting will help scientists generate maps that can serve as an “early-warning system” for regions that will have low huckleberry productivity in a given year. These “low-productivity” regions may be places where bears and other species need to roam outside of their typical range in search of food. Predicting this movement in advance could help wildlife managers prevent conflict with humans, one of the biggest challenges to bear viability.

As I said, the study site is between two mountain ranges, so while the study sites were in several different locations, all in Swan Valley – even if the actual sites were deep in the woods – the drives to and from had breathtaking views.

The views from the expedition, located in Flathead National Forest.

The views from the expedition, located near Flathead National Forest.

Earthwatch lead scientist Dr. Tabitha Graves joined us in the field the first few days of the project. She is totally passionate about her work with grizzlies, and knew absolutely everything about the ecology of the area. She was also very focused on making sure everyone had a good time. Her lead field tech, Jessie, is a recent college grad, wise and mature beyond her years, but with boundless energy and a childlike wonderment about all things in the natural world. You can’t have a bad day when you are with Jessie.

On one of the field days, we did something called an absence/presence survey, which meant that we took a long hike and stopped at 15-minute intervals to look for the absence or presence of various bees, berries, and other bear food sources. It was interesting work, but it didn’t feel like work, since it was actually a gorgeous hike up to a glacial lake at the foot of some rock spires – just like a postcard. The water looked refreshing. No, make that cold. But, that didn’t stop Jessie from jumping in for a swim. She was quickly followed by Mei. I got cooled off from our hike just watching them.

On our way back from the field one afternoon, we wheeled into the general store nearby for ice cream. The sign in front had three words, each starting with a “B” – beer, bait, and something else. It should have been brownies. At the register, they had a tray of freshly made brownies. As an admitted chocoholic I was in heaven. I figured we had earned them, so I bought a bagful. Don’t get the wrong impression. I’m a chocoholic, but not cruel. I shared them with the team. I kind of had to, since they saw me buy them. We all agreed they would have been delicious even without a full day of exercise and fresh air. They also make a terrific birthday cake, especially when sprinkled with delicious huckleberries. It’s always good to go home, but it was really tough to leave this time. We had such a great time with the team and the field crew. I also think I share the grizzlies’ love for beautiful places.

To learn more about this important research, visit our expedition webpage: Climate Change, Huckleberries, and Grizzly Bears in Montana.

On Living Sustainably

By Kyle Gaw

It’s said that the flutter of a butterfly’s wings has the power to create a chain reaction altering the course of weather forever. A simple ripple in the air, something so innocent and forgettable, has the ability to change the course of history – and the same can be said for you.

It’s easy for a concerned citizen to feel distraught in today’s environmental and political climate. As the signs of climate change become more apparent, many politicians seem to be working harder at burying their heads in the sand rather than trying to pass policy to prevent it from worsening. Undoubtedly, this raises the question of how much impact one person can really have in the fight to address climate change.

That’s not the case at Earthwatch. If there’s one thing that we’ve learned in our nearly 50 years of operation, it’s the power of one person to ignite monumental change.

We, as a society, are standing at a crossroads. We can choose to follow the lead of select elected officials and ignore the signs of climate change; or we can start flapping our proverbial wings by taking up arms in the fight to save the planet.

Now you’re probably asking yourself, “that’s all well and good but how do I begin?” Our advice is to start with simple changes you can make today. No one person is going to change the world overnight but by adding sustainable practices into everyday life, we all can lower our impact on the environment and start to decrease the effects of climate change.

Below we’ve compiled a few easy things that you can start doing to be more sustainable (and added in a few animal GIFs to encourage you to take the next step). Let us know which of these you plan on doing or add some ideas of your own in the comments section below.

Get Informed

If knowledge is power, our first line of defense against climate change naturally should be to learn as much as we can.

Subscribe to blogs, watch documentaries, talk to scientists, do anything you can do to learn about how to protect the environment and improvements you can make in your daily life to reduce your carbon footprint.

Get Involved

There is strength in numbers. Get involved in your local community groups.

Try finding a green living or sustainability Meetup close to you. Not only will you feel more connected to the cause, you might even make some friends along the way.

Increase your energy efficiency

Wherever you are right now, look around and take a quick audit of everything that you have plugged in/everything consuming electricity. Now look to see how many of those things have an energy star label on them. If you’re not able to count them all on one hand, this one is for you.

Start by turning off the lights in rooms that you’re not occupying, unplug unused appliances, hang clothing when weather permits rather than using a machine. The added bonus to this sustainable tip will be apparent when you look at your bank account at the end of the month and you see that extra money looking back at you.

Eat wisely

Think outside the box, literally. Start off by choosing to eat less processed foods, which typically require a lot more energy to produce.

Plant a vegetable garden in your backyard to start producing your own food. Dedicate one meal a week to meat-free eating since ~18% of greenhouse gas emissions come from meat and dairy farms.

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

This one should be an old hat by now but it’s worth repeating. Try to avoid creating more landfill by reusing what you already have for new purposes. Recycle whatever you can’t give new life to.

Take things a step further by composting your food scraps and other biodegradable materials or write to your local stores and product manufacturer to let them know you want them to reduce packaging on products.

Let polluters pay

Carbon taxes are one of the most effective ways to reduce the nation’s climate impact. Check to see if similar policies are enacted where you live and, if they’re not, contact your elected representative to begin the process of getting one on the books.

Green your commute

Commuting every day by yourself can get lonely and add unneeded carbon to the atmosphere. Switch up your daily routine and test out other means of transportation.

Start by dedicating one day a week or even one a month to create a more sustainable commute. Consider walking, biking, taking public transit, or if all else fails, carpool to work.

But don’t stop there, the United Nations has created a fantastic user guide to saving the world for even the laziest among us.

Questions or comments about this post? Feel free to contact us at We’d love to hear from you!

Four Ways Earthwatch Teen Expeditions Have Inspired Young Scientists

The sun sets on the expedition Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park. (Courtesy Mike Mao)

The sun sets on the expedition Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park.

Nationwide, teens are demanding for their voices to be heard. In Florida, an emboldened group of students are working tirelessly to write op-ed pieces, hold interviews with the media, and organize rallies and demonstrations, all in an effort to gain support for common sense gun laws.  In Kansas, there are six teenagers running gubernatorial races in an effort to help shape the policies that will impact the economy and environment that they will inherit. In July, thousands of teens are expected to march on Washington D.C. for the Zero Hour Youth March with the goal of “holding adults and elected officials accountable for their legacy of destruction and inaction when it comes climate change.”

Even amidst this incredible uprising of teen voices, there are still adults who doubt the power of teenagers, who view teenagers as “too young” or “too inexperienced” to really make a change.

That’s not the case here at Earthwatch. We’re well aware of exactly how much teenagers are capable of when given the opportunity.

Below are four examples of such teens whose perspectives of the world were permanently altered after fielding on an Earthwatch Teen Expedition

The view from the expedition Climate Change at the Arctic's Edge. (Courtesy Matti Urlass)

The view from the expedition Climate Change at the Arctic’s Edge.

1. An unexpected, life-changing adventure

Judith Santano experienced a lot of firsts when she traveled from her home in urban Los Angeles to participate in the Earthwatch expedition Spotting Songbirds in the Rockies. It was the first time she was able to experience a literal breath of fresh air, the first time she saw a bear in the wild, and the first time she realized that there was “more than one way to love science.”

Judith joined her first Earthwatch expedition as a teenager with a love for science and left with a new sense of direction to take in life, even if she did not know it at the time. By experiencing real field science, and knowing that the research she was conducting was a part of a larger effort to protect these songbirds, Judith was given the opportunity to take a step back and appreciate the beauty in nature. She credits the experience as “giving her the opportunity to fall in love with the earth.”

“Although I didn’t completely know it when I was 15, Earthwatch would influence the path I would take in my studies, career, and life.”

Now pursuing a degree from Stanford University in Earth Systems, Judith hopes to study the impact humans have on the environment and promote the importance of science education.

Teens tackle mountain peaks on the expedition Wildlife in the Changing Andorran Pyrenees.

Teens tackle mountain peaks on the expedition Wildlife in the Changing Andorran Pyrenees.

2. A step outside the comfort zone and into a career path

In 2006, when Moria Robinson joined Earthwatch in Arizona to study the relationship between caterpillars and climate change, she had no idea how the experience would shape her life. For Moria – who has a love of science, nature, and bugs – this Earthwatch expedition was a trifecta. She spent two weeks in Arizona helping Earthwatch scientists collect data on the impact of these insects on their environment.

Ten years later, Moria went on to run her very own caterpillar research lab at the University of California, where she simultaneously pursued a PhD. in Biology, in large part due to her experience in the field as a high school student.

3. A test of courage, a lifetime of resolve

Few can say that they knew what they wanted to do with their lives at the age of 17. For Taormina Lepore, it wasn’t a question of what she wanted to do but how she’d be able to get there. Before joining her first Earthwatch Expedition as a teenager, Taormina had dreams of pursuing a career as a scientist and an educator. Being actively involved in the field of science seemed like a nice idea to her, but without a clear path to follow, that idea seemed unattainable.

That’s until Taormina packed her bags and boarded a flight to Jackson Hole, Wyoming as an Earthwatch fellow. Little did she know that along with uncovering ancient fossils, she’d also uncover the path to pursue her dream career that she’d been in search of. Taormina credits her two weeks fielding with Earthwatch as the reason she was able to build a career that allowed her to travel around the country as a museum director, as a research paleontologist, and as a high school science educator.

I think about Earthwatch when I remind my students that they can do these same kinds of things. Scientific fieldwork is within their reach.”

Teens band together on the expedition Helping Endangered Corals in the Cayman Islands. (Courtesy Gabrielle Schavran)

Volunteers band together on the expedition Helping Endangered Corals in the Cayman Islands.

4. A taste for field work, a deeper understanding of conservation

When Taylor Rhoades was 16 years old, she had it all figured out. She was going to study veterinary medicine, work with animals in the field, then retire working for a zoo; simple as that. In her mind, the best path to conserving the environment was through protecting animal life. Her parents, however, while supportive of her dreams, urged her to get a more well-rounded picture of what conservation really looks like. That’s where Earthwatch entered the picture.

Joining an Earthwatch expedition gave Taylor the chance to live her dream, even if just for a few weeks.

Once she entered college at Texas A&M University, Taylor was able to draw the connection between her work in the field studying animal life and the role that humans play in conservation. She is now working to educate the public to take action to save all types of animals.

“Earthwatch was the only organization that I found that would allow someone my age to actually go out and do hands-on work in the field, working directly with wildlife and conservationists.”

If you’re interested in learning more about Earthwatch’s Teen Expeditions and student groups, please contact Earthwatch at or by calling 1-800-776-0188.

Scientific Research: A ‘Labor of Love’

A meadow of wildflowers in Acadia National Park. (Courtesy Jared Biunno)

A meadow of wildflowers in Acadia National Park. (Courtesy Jared Biunno)

By Jared Biunno, Earthwatch Volunteer

What are we to do?! November 9th, 2016, the election has changed everything and with that change has come a newly invigorated assault on environmental protections and policies. After almost a year of signing online petitions, reading Washington Post articles and donating to the Sierra Club, my fight against climate change existed only in the digital sphere. That approach proved to be mentally exhausting, and so my inner voice told me to get my eyes off my laptop and out into the world. Do something practical, something you can touch, on the ground, out in the field, literally in the dirt!

Fast forward to September 10th, 2017, and I’m stepping foot in my very first national park as one of ten team members on an Earthwatch expedition – Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park.

I grew up in a suburban household with parents that were either too busy or too uninterested to integrate nature into our childhood. On vacations, we would go on cruises or to resorts. On sunny summer afternoons, we would go to the local pool or the crowded beach. Nature simply wasn’t part of my family’s everyday. Naturally, making first ground at Acadia National Park was like stepping into a wonderland. The air! Oh my goodness, the air. Crisp and fresh with a smell that was the most natural and pleasant aroma to ever fill my nostrils. If the first goal of my Earthwatch expedition was to enhance my appreciation of the natural world, I was off to a good start.

After a brief night of meeting my team and going through the program itinerary, we began the real work at the crack of dawn. Here is what I have to say about my experience during this expedition: it is real work. Hard work. It’s not a vacation, it’s not a light, relaxing getaway. We arrived out in the field and you could feel the intimidation amongst the team. At that moment we knew this was not going to be a “fun little science trip.” This was going to be rough and tough data collection, at the very least.

On my first day, I, along with some of my other team members, began to naturally complain and sigh about how rigorous and tedious our load was. We were hunched over, digging through the brush, branches whacking us in the face, counting berries and sweating from head to toe. We had a predetermined list of tasks to accomplish in a set amount of time and there was no special treatment. This was not a Carnival cruise by any means.

However, as we slowly pushed through the first day, the second day, the third day, I began to notice something. Our team of “citizen scientists” had begun to gel. Our confidence grew, our complaining subsided and we began to build efficiency in our work. I have to admit, it was a sight to behold. Here are brand marketers, a chef, a school teacher, people from all walks of life adapting and growing, developing systems and methods to execute the work faster and better. After a little while, we started to really enjoy the process through the teamwork and camaraderie. The actual work did not get any less tedious or tiresome, but the pride amongst the team continued to grow and grow. We were not going to fail! This was a group of human beings with a brash determination to finish the day with success; there was simply no other option.

A team of Earthwatch volunteers in Acadia National Park. (Courtesy Jared Biunno)

A team of Earthwatch volunteers in Acadia National Park. (Courtesy Jared Biunno)

We had begun to understand that this is a job of labor and love, and that being a citizen scientist was clearly a title that was earned. Slowly but surely we felt that we were earning that title.

At one point in the trip, we came to a profound realization: this is the life of a scientist. Long after we return to our office buildings and studio apartments, these scientists will continue on to the next week. And then the week after that. And throughout the years and years, they will be here, at Acadia National Park, in the forest or on the coast, researching and collecting data and studying samples and fighting climate change. We began to understand that scientists, like firefighters and astronauts and soldiers, were true American heroes.

We had a conversation amongst ourselves one night about how these men and women are dedicating their lives to this hard, gritty work and sacrificing so much all in the effort of obtaining answers to nature’s greatest questions. We wondered why someone would do this for their entire life (as our backs ached from the day’s work) and, after a moment of silence amongst the group, one of our team members said in the simplest of ways, “Someone has to.” We all silently nodded to ourselves, and at that moment we understood the significance of why we were there.

To learn more about the research being conducted, visit our project webpage, Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park.

An Earthwatch Meet-Cute For The (Bronze) Ages

By Karen and Michael Crisafulli, Earthwatch Volunteers

In 1993, a team of Earthwatch volunteers assembled in Spain to participate on a Bronze Age archaeological dig as part of an expedition excavating an ancient Iberian village. And while digging side-by-side, two citizen scientists uncovered more than artifacts. They uncovered love. They each share their stories of how they met.

Karen during what would prove to be the serendipitous 1993 Earthwatch expedition Ancient Iberian Village.

Karen during what would prove to be the serendipitous 1993 Earthwatch expedition Ancient Iberian Village.

Karen: “This is the whole story in a nutshell: Michael came home and said, ‘Ma, look what I dug up!’”

So begins the toast my brother-in-law, Greg, made at our wedding, August 19, 1995.

Two years before, I met Michael on my first Earthwatch project, and though I had lived in Australia, traveled to Europe and Africa, the project in Spain was to be different in two important ways: one, I would be participating in my first dig; and two, I was about to turn a corner in my life…

A more unromantic meeting place would be hard to find – the bus station in Zaragoza. But Michael seemed to notice me right away and managed to sit with me on the one-hour long bus ride to Borja. Our final destination was a youth hostel, The Albergue, in the village of Santuario de la Misericordia near the Bronze Age dig site. During the two-week expedition, we found we had a lot in common as we worked together at the excavation, talked over drinks in the soft summer night air at the village outdoor café, and made plans to meet once we were back in the U.S. Parting after the expedition was hard, but what began in Spain extended into a year of weekend commutes from Binghamton, NY, to Farmington, CT, Michael moving in with me, and our eventual marriage.

Earthwatch brought us together, and it, along with Michael, has a special place in my heart.

Michael during that same 1993 expedition.

Michael during that same 1993 expedition.

Michael: I arrived in Spain early for my third Earthwatch project, Ancient Iberian Village, a Bronze Age archaeology dig, and spent nearly a week traveling around the country by train. By the time I reached the bus station in Zaragoza for the last leg of my travel to the team rendezvous, I was well acclimated to the hot summer weather and Spanish culture. Here, I met several of the other volunteers, recognizable by their Earthwatch pins or emblems. Karen was one of these folk and I took to her at once. We sat together on the hour bus ride to the small town of Borja, and spent much of the next two weeks together as well. I kept a journal of the entire trip and I find my thoughts about Karen filling page after page after our meeting, nearly squeezing out my notes on the project and its related cultural experiences.

Our days were ordered this way: We had a minimal breakfast in The Albergue, or youth hostel where we stayed, in the tiny village of Santuario de la Misericordia. Since the team was large, we were driven in separate groups to the excavation site of Majaladares, the first group walking the last part of the trek so the car could return for the second. We worked through the morning, stopping for a sandwich break, and then reversed the order for the trip back to The Albergue, the first group being driven from the site, the second walking part of the trip. Karen and I were assigned to the same excavation crew, working near the top of the hill that afforded a beautiful view of the Ebro River valley, so we spent lots of time together, both working, riding, and walking. As we got to know each other I found my initial positive reaction continuously reinforced. One day, Karen was not feeling well and stayed back at the Albergue. I very much missed her that morning, but took advantage of my walk from the site to pick some wild flowers – “three varieties, three colors,” my journal says – and had her roommate deliver them.


We arrived at The Albergue near noon when the summer heat was peaking, and usually enjoyed a siesta before what was always a fabulous main meal prepared by the hostel staff. The afternoons were spent in the shaded yard of The Albergue cleaning, sorting, and marking finds. For this work we were rewarded with a second fabulous meal at 8 o’clock. Shortly into the first week, a small team of hearty volunteers was organized to return to the site in the afternoons. Karen and I volunteered for this group. The first week of the project, the weather was sunny and hot until the afternoon it rained. “Rain” is insufficient to describe the wind and downpour that hit the hearty team that afternoon. We ran for the cave where we stored our tools. We were soaked literally to the skin while we waited out the storm. We found the trenches filled with water when we emerged and the weather from then on was strangely cool, rather like Scotland.

I lived in Connecticut at that time and Karen four hours away in upstate New York, but the distance didn’t seem prohibitive and we made plans to get together. I had another week in Mallorca scheduled after the Majaladares team finished its work, but I promised Karen I’d call the moment I returned home. Weather on my return flight gave our relationship its first test. My plane couldn’t land at JFK and was diverted to Hartford, Connecticut. This was, in fact, my final destination, but of course I couldn’t disembark. I missed my connecting flight and my call was late, even though I made it at the airport. But we passed the test and it was great to hear each other’s voices again.

That was 1993. Karen and I were married in 1995. We’ve participated in a new Earthwatch project each year since then. It’s always fun to see the reaction when we tell people how we met on an Earthwatch project Spain.

During their 2015 Earthwatch trip to Spain, Karen and Michael found an infinity mirror while visiting a museum on one of the project's excursion days.

During their 2015 Earthwatch trip to Spain, Karen and Michael found an infinity mirror while visiting a museum on one of the project’s excursion days.

Earthwatch – The Beginning of Everything

By Taylor Rhoades, Earthwatch Volunteer

At 16, Taylor Rhoades traveled to Trinidad and South Africa with Earthwatch to conduct hands-on research alongside scientists – an experience that would set her on the path to her dream job at the Houston Zoo.

Taylor during a tour of the Dallas Zoo when she was working for the National Geographic Photo Ark.

Taylor Rhoades

At 26, it may seem silly to sit back and think about where life has taken you – but when you’ve just landed your dream job, you start to think about all the experiences that have shaped you, and how all of those years of hard work have led up to this moment. Looking back almost a decade, I can say without a doubt that my experiences with Earthwatch were key in defining both my personal and professional identities as a conservationist.

During my junior year of high school, I was aggressively pursuing a future in veterinary medicine, and knew that my ultimate goal would be to work with animals in the field, and then eventually find my way into a zoo setting as I neared retirement age. Believe me when I say 16-year-old me had it ALL figured out – but my parents, while unwavering in their support, weren’t quite sure I had thought through what life in the field would mean. They encouraged me to find a project I could go work on that would allow me to gain field experience, and that is exactly what I did!

Earthwatch was the only organization that I found that would allow someone my age to actually go out and do hands-on work in the field, working directly with wildlife and conservationists.

So, the summer before my senior year of high school, I spent two weeks in Trinidad working with leatherback sea turtles, followed by two weeks in South Africa studying brown hyenas. The trips I went on gave me a taste for field work, and I fell in love with every aspect of it – so much so that I jokingly called my parents from Trinidad and told them not to be surprised if I lost my passport. I came home energized and beyond ready to graduate so I could start the next chapter of my life.

Fast forward to college – I ended up at Texas A&M University where I started out as a pre-vet student, but ultimately switched into anthropology after meeting a professor who does cultural studies in Trinidad. We bonded over our research in a country that we both loved, and through our discussions, I realized just how much of an impact my time in the field had had on me. I didn’t just want to save wildlife, I wanted to know all about the people who lived alongside these animals. My professor mentored me for the next several years, and the more immersed I became in cultural studies, the more I understood that conservation wasn’t just about the animals – it was about people too.

After graduating with my BA in Anthropology, I went on to do my MSc in Primate Conservation at Oxford Brookes in the UK. My dissertation, entitled “A Texas Perspective: is there a preference for the conservation of endemic versus foreign species through viewing wildlife documentaries?” explored how factors such as generation and gender impact individuals, and in turn influence species preference and willingness to contribute to conservation initiatives. By this time, I knew that I wanted to work directly with people and better understand how to not just inspire the public to care, but to get them to take action to save wildlife.

After graduating from the MSc program in 2016, I completed two internships – one at the Houston Zoo with their conservation department, and one with National Geographic photographer Joel Sartore, founder of the Photo Ark. As of October 2017, I have started full-time at the Houston Zoo as the Conservation Action Analyst and I couldn’t be happier! Every day I get to offer support to our staff of over 450 conservationists and our project partners all around the world that are working tirelessly to save wildlife. Not only that, but I get to work with people in my hometown and watch them become advocates for wildlife within their own communities! I also get to join my co-workers out in the field on beach clean-ups, sea turtle surveys, and annual monarch butterfly tagging excursions, so field work is still very much a part of my life.

For years when I told people what I was studying, I would often be met with a giggle followed by a discouraging “And how will you make a living doing that?” Now, one of my favorite questions to answer is “how in the world did you get a such a cool job?” The answer? It all started with an organization called Earthwatch.

To learn more about Earthwatch teen expeditions, visit our website.

Conducting “Real Science” Alongside Real Scientists at Acadia National Park

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By Kyle Ang, Earthwatch Ignite Fellow 2016

After scouring the web for opportunities to conduct hands-on research, Kyle Ang received a fateful email that would send him from his home in Los Angeles to Acadia National Park in Maine. Kyle shares his experience as participating in the Ignite Student Fellowship Program, and how this experience inspired him to pursue a STEM major at the University of Rochester.

Kyle Ang

Kyle Ang

I wanted to do real science.

I was in my junior year of high school, and I knew I wanted to do something hands-on. I wanted to contribute to expanding humanity’s library of knowledge and learn more about what it truly meant to be a scientist.

After weeks of searching for opportunities, nearly all research programs popped up with prices of $2,000 and upwards. There was no way I could afford them, so I continued looking for others. I could hardly count how many websites I visited and signed up for to get updates.

Then, two months later, I received an email that said, “Are you a high school sophomore or junior in the LA area? Spend two weeks next summer participating on a fully funded, scientific research expedition alongside scientists and other students in a natural landscape.”

It was perfect. I applied and was accepted into Earthwatch’s Ignite program for Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park.

2016 Earthwatch Ignite FellowsForward to July 11, 2016, I set off on a six-hour flight from LA to Maine with eight other high school students from Los Angeles County. It was exciting to be on my own for the first time traveling to a new place, with new people. We had a six-hour layover at the Boston Logan International Airport before we actually arrived in Maine. During the wait, my team and I bonded over playing cards, telling jokes, and trying to keep each other awake.

We stayed at the research and education campus of Schoodic Institute where we spent two weeks hopping from different field sites and tide pools to study the effects of ocean acidification on intertidal communities.

I learned about how carbon dioxide, the pumping of fossil fuels, and burning of chemicals into our atmosphere has created a disruption between interactions among the organisms in our oceans. We discussed the urgent issue of lowering pH levels and how our oceans’ rising acidity is dissolving the shells of organisms that contribute to a large part of Acadia’s natural resources and marine ecosystems.

It struck me then that we, as inhabitants of our planet, must act urgently in every way possible to take care of our environment and preserve its natural beauty for future generations to come.

When we headed out into the field, in our neon yellow vests, we collected crabs while crawling through cobble, ate freshly salted seaweed straight from the rocks, examined algae and even watched barnacles open up their mouths to feast on sea plankton. We mixed epoxy glue for our settlement plates and discovered a new side to science as we watched researchers drill holes into volcanic rock.

The best part for me was being able to experience so many new things. I had never been to the east coast or a tide pool. I hadn’t eaten lobster, scones, whoopie pies, s’mores, or had a campfire. I had never been away from my house for so long, bunked/slept over with friends, watched the sunrise while eating my breakfast on top of rocks facing the ocean, nor had I picked fresh blueberries off of bushes before.

I’d never gone on a mystery adventure drive at 10 p.m. under the full moon to search a wobbling boat dock for a shoal of squid, or gone moth hunting, or had multiple caterpillars waddling up and down my arm. (My teammates and I named one Francesca.) I hadn’t gone on a hike up Alder trail in 90-degree weather (probably my most challenging hike to date), and I surely never had as many bug bites as I got during this expedition. (I ended up with 44. I guess it was the mosquitoes’ way of welcoming me to Maine!) And to add to all of that, I can even say now that I’ve met the inspiring explorer, Sylvia Earle.

I time-lapsed fast moving clouds, painfully slow snails, and fascinatingly bizarre barnacles feeding on sea-plankton. I learned how to use a compass and search for our sites using a handheld GPS. (We had cool site names like Mordor, Hogwarts, Tabletop, and Blueberry Hill.) I’ve always viewed data-entry as tedious, but with this expedition, I realized it was actually satisfying. I learned how to make settlement plates to place at our sites. I learned to avoid slippery sea lettuce — or “the green slime of death,” as John Cigliano, our lead scientist, called it.

When I got home, I wanted to tell everyone that I watched a scientist drill holes into volcanic rock. I wanted to let them know, “Scientists aren’t just nerds in lab coats!” Some of them stared at me with amusement as I gushed on about barnacles opening up to eat sea plankton, and about how crabs leave behind dead skin in the shape of cool translucent shells. I wanted to tell them how amazing it was to walk through dirt paths with nothing else but green trees and fresh air surrounding you. I opened up the topic of how worrying it is for people to still doubt climate change.

Most of all, I was excited to tell them I contributed to science. I did field work, lab experiments, and worked alongside real scientists. I wanted to tell them all about how wonderful it felt to be a part of something that would actually impact the welfare of our planet.

I realized that while science exists to study and answer questions still unanswered, sometimes, science does not work the way we expect it to. It takes time, error, failure, and countless tries. And sometimes, while it does not answer our questions, it can present new ones that continue to fuel humanity’s insatiable curiosity to seek answers.

Now, as a freshman exploring the arts, music, and sciences at the University of Rochester, I look back on my Earthwatch expedition with pride and gratitude knowing that it was an experience I will continue to share with others and remember for many years to come.

Learn more about this program by visiting the Earthwatch Ignite Fellowship website.

The Top 10 Earthwatch Expeditions of 2017 (according to our volunteers)!

What were the best expeditions of 2017 according to our volunteers? To find out, we tallied evaluation scores submitted by volunteers – scores that factor in safety, support, team dynamic, research contribution, training, overall satisfaction, and more. Some of the most common comments we received have to do with the inspiring and hardworking staff, the discovery of science, and the feeling of having an impact as major highlights.

1. Saving Joshua Tree’s Desert Species

Joshua tree (Courtesy Joanne Owen)Joshua Tree National Park in Southern California has seen increases in wildfires, severe storms, and persistent droughts due to climate change. Volunteers help safely trap and release reptiles, small mammals, and arthropods, and conduct vegetation surveys to better understand the movement of species within this desert ecosystem and help to develop a critical baseline understanding of how climate change is shaping this environment.

“I was impressed not only with the knowledge and expertise of the scientists, but also with their compassion and concern. This was shown by their compassion for and consideration of the research subjects, plants and animals. Traps were set and attended so as not to hurt or injure. Even plants and bugs were not unnecessarily tromped on. Each of the participants was treated with consideration and care. Even discussion of those who might not value the research or misbehaving park visitors were respected. I heard one of the scientists say, ‘It’s their park too. We have to teach them how to experience it if they don’t know how.'” – Alison Bishop

2. Uncovering the Mysteries of Colorado’s Pueblo Communities

Uncovering the Mysteries of Colorado's Pueblo Communities project site. (Courtesy Warren Stortroen)In southwest Colorado, Earthwatch volunteers are uncovering some of the least understood questions around great houses of ancestral Pueblo communities. Archaeologists at Crow Canyon Research Center are discovering the nature of Chaco influence and impact of drought on building practices during the Pueblo II period in a region filled with mountainous cliff dwellings and canyons.

“All of the staff and researchers at Crow Canyon are great to work with. They are always attentive to the needs of volunteers, and show that they really care about our welfare and our involvement in the research.” – Warren Stortroen

3. Amazon Riverboat Exploration

Volunteers cruising down the Samiria River in the Amazon. (Courtesy Pablo Puertas)A kaleidoscope of wildlife lives deep in the heart of Peru’s flooded Amazon region, including rare pink river dolphins, macaws, and small alligator-like caimans. Volunteers survey these species and more while operating out of a historic boat – collecting data that directly shape local conservation and management policies.

“I am a bench experimental biologist. The expedition introduced me to an entirely different kind of science. Learning about community-based conservation, meeting the young biologists who were our teachers and the local people who were our boatmen, and experiencing environments and landscapes entirely new to me – it was enormously enjoyable.” – Barbara Baltelle

4. Wildlife in the Changing Andorran Pyrenees

The Andorran Pyrenees (Courtesy Mathew Yee)In the high slopes of the Andorran Pyrenees, as in other mountain ecosystems, climate change is altering the landscape. Volunteers are helping researchers to investigate the amazing biodiversity of these forests and alpine meadows so they can identify mitigation strategies. During their nine days on the project, they learn to identify birds, assess mammal diversity with camera traps, study alpine flowers, and track bats under the stars.

“The scientists – Bernat, Irene and Jana – could not have provided a better experience. Their enthusiasm and eagerness to share information engaged the team and allowed us to feel a real part of this project. I learned a great deal about employing scientific method to obtain data that would be of value. As a new retiree, it felt great to realize continued physical and mental abilities that could be of use. I was always encouraged to challenge myself, but never expected to do more than what I was comfortable with.” – Henry Bowen

5. Wildlife of the Mongolian Steppe

Siberian ibex running across the Mongolian Steppe.A wilderness landscape with a rich diversity of wildlife that few people ever experience – that’s the beauty of Mongolia. Here, volunteers are assessing the health and behavior of Argali sheep, Lesser Kestrels, Cinereous Vultures, Siberian ibex, and other species – many of which are threatened by poaching, illegal mining, and overgrazing.

“I learned a lot about the local community and the project. The community is highly involved, therefore you can see the impact. I learned from the herdsmen that during the past 30 years, climate change has had a direct impact on the local community. This project also brought out the best in me as I learned to work with my fellow teammates.” – Bernard Johnpulle

6. Climate Change at the Arctic’s Edge

Volunteers conducting field research during the expedition Climate Change at the Arctic's Edge. (Courtesy Erica Marlaine)Churchill, Manitoba, known as the “polar bear capital of the world,” is located at the Arctic treeline and is extremely sensitive to small environmental changes that have a huge impact on ecosystems. Warming temperatures have led to shrinking areas of polar sea ice, freshwater wetlands that are drying up, and less extensive winter snowpack that melts earlier. Volunteers are helping researchers to gather evidence of climate change in this extraordinary region to better understand what the future may have in store for the environment.

“The expedition made me realize that this is the type of work I would possibly want to do in the future. Before this, I didn’t know what being a field scientist really entailed. But being a part of this team made me appreciate the work of field (and all) scientists and truly understand the importance of work like this.” – Olivia Ellman

7. Protecting Whooping Cranes and Coastal Habitats in Texas

Two adult Whooping Cranes with a subadult in Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. (Courtesy Dave Rein)Hunting pressure and landscape changes have pushed the endangered Whooping Crane to the brink of extinction. Thanks to conservation efforts, the only wild migratory population, which winters in the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, has grown from just 15 birds to more than 300. Volunteers are helping scientists along the Gulf Coast of Texas, a region that has seen some of the most devastating impacts of Hurricane Harvey, to survey Whooping Crane habitat and foraging patterns to inform protection measures for their winter home.

“This program provides an excellent opportunity for the average citizen to become educated about our planet at a level beyond the textbook. I learned more about the earth’s beautiful resources and the importance of protecting this endangered species and its habitat. I gained firsthand knowledge of the work by the few that care so much to dedicate their lives to accomplish this.” – Rick Bryant

8. Following Forest Owls in the Western U.S.

Volunteers measure owls.Deep within the aspen groves in northern Utah and the riparian canyon and coniferous forests in southeastern Arizona, a suite of small forest owl species seek out tree cavities for their nests. But climate change threatens to disrupt the routine of these species. Researchers, assisted by Earthwatch volunteers, are conducting nesting surveys, measuring, photographing, and banding several small cavity-nesting owl species, including Flammulated, Elf, and Whiskered Screech Owls.

“I have been on 17 Earthwatch expeditions and this was one of the best. Dave and Markus (the scientists) were always patient, enthusiastic and generous. They understood that a key ingredient of a successful expedition is making certain that the volunteers feel useful. We all worked hard and reveled in that.” – Alice Jacklet

9. Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park

Acadia National Park (Courtesy Thomas Tepstad Berge)Maine’s Acadia National Park is a popular pit-stop for migratory birds that need to rest and refuel, thanks to its abundance of berries and insects. But changes in climate have shifted the timing of this rendezvous, which may affect the survival of species that rely on each other for pollination and sustenance. Volunteers are assisting scientists in studying the effects of climate change on land, in freshwater lakes and streams, and along the rocky seashore of this iconic New England landscape.

“Real world data collection – fantastic! The Schoodic area is breathtakingly beautiful. The variety of tasks and environments (forest and intertidal) made for an interesting adventure. Also, I now know what phenology is! This project gave me an appreciation for the difficulty of getting good data.” – Michael Flumian

10. Conserving Marine Life along Catalina’s Coast

Volunteers kayaking off the coast of Catalina Island. (Courtesy Brad Stevenson)On the picturesque island of Catalina, located off the coast of southern California, scientists and Earthwatch volunteers are assessing the impact of Marine Protected Areas on the abundance of species such as California sea lions, gray whales, and common dolphins. They are also monitoring threats from climate change and human activities and helping to conserve this unique coastal habitat.

“The expedition opened my eyes to the opportunities within science and the accessibility for all. Also, that science is something which should be enjoyed as well as questioned.” – Emily Mawbey

To learn more about any of these projects, visit the Earthwatch website, email us at, or call us at 1-800-776-0188.

One… Two… Three trips to the Andorran Pyrenees.

Andorran Pyrenees Mountains. (Courtesy Mathew Yee)
By Nita Losoponkul, Earthwatch Volunteer

As an Earthwatch volunteer, Nita Losoponkul has traveled to Andorra three times to participate on the expedition Wildlife in the Changing Pyrenees. She shares what makes this place so special and why she has chosen to return each time.

“Again? Didn’t you go there last year?” Well yes. And I LOVED every minute of it!

While most people can’t find Andorra on the map, it is now one of my favorite places and I hope that I’ll be fortunate enough to be able to visit again in the future. I’ve been lucky enough to go on five Earthwatch expeditions and chose to do three of the five on the Wildlife in the Changing Pyrenees, where scientists are studying how climate change is impacting this Alpine environment.

(Courtesy Mathew Yee)

When asked about why I’m a three-timer, it’s hard to choose just one reason, but here’s my best attempt to explain:

1. My inner science geek is set free. I’ve always loved science. As a child, I begged my parents to go to “nerd camp,” to spend summers digging for fossils and to be excused from curfew to stay out late to view constellations. But as I got older, it became harder to stick with what I loved, and I eventually walked away from science and into business school.

Earthwatch is my avenue to stay in touch with that inner science geek that I had pushed aside as I began adulting.

The Wildlife in the Changing Pyrenees project, in particular, has been amazing at satisfying my nerdiness as the team has continued to innovate each year. Even as a third-timer, there were new sub-projects underway that I needed to learn about. There are 12 different study sites and numerous activities at each site that volunteers self-select to do involving small mammals, bird banding, tree measurements, nest boxes, soil decomposition, insects, and permafrost flower and plant species. It would take many more trips for me to do every sub-project at every site. And then there are new ones added each year! (We started setting up a new sub-project for next year on this last trip, but I’ll leave it to the research team to spill the beans on this.)

2. I’m inspired by the passion and dedication of the team to do more. I’ve never seen a team that works as hard as the research staff on this project. While we are enjoying our desserts and wine (see #4, below) after dinner, they are back out in the field, in the dark, doing a nighttime check of the small mammal traps. On our “day off,” they are hauling supplies up the mountain so there was less for us volunteers to carry. On the hikes, they have the heaviest packs, loaded down with stacks of wood, hammers, mallets, and anything else you could possibly think of.

They are out with us every step of the way, and then some more after we’ve called it a day.

The crew members are also some of the smartest and kindest people I’ve ever met. I’m language challenged, and I consider it a personal victory that I say basic things like wine, cheese and bathroom in a few different languages. But to be able to converse, and know less commonly used words like dendrometer and know that a group of crows is called a murder in Catalan, Spanish, French, Latin (the scientific names of things) and English is awe-inspiring (I didn’t really know these myself until I did this project, and English is my native tongue).

3. “Stretch assignments” that “push the limits” build character. This is not an easy project from a physical standpoint. Except for those who have natural abilities to run both on and off trails with ease (i.e. “mountain goats”), it’s definitely an expedition that requires some training in advance. But it’s pushed me to work harder and train harder and believe that if I try, I can conquer the hills! And in case I’m wrong, I have a supportive team to catch me when I fall! That being said, the team also believes in “no volunteer left behind.” They have done an amazing job on each of my three expeditions with finding skill and strength-appropriate tasks for volunteers, no matter where they are at physically.

If you are thinking of doing this project (which I highly recommend), I do encourage you to train for it. The views are spectacular (see evidence of this in the photos on this blog post and on the project Facebook page) and worth the challenging hikes to get there. (Well, except site 11, which I’ll let other volunteers and the team share more about some other time).

The team that survived the climb to site 11. (Courtesy Daniel Almeida)

The team that survived the climb to site 11. (Courtesy Daniel Almeida)

4. It’s still my vacation and I come home rejuvenated. I’m at the age where if given the option, I’m going to select an actual bed, a flushing toilet, and a hot shower over “roughing it” like I did in my younger years with bucket rinses, pit toilets, and sleeping bags. Hotel Bringue definitely meets that requirement, and then some. (There is also wifi and cable TV.) Many of the volunteers (myself included) have had a number of dietary restrictions and the hotel staff does a fabulous job ensuring there is something for everyone to eat. After a day booking it up the mountain and sometimes, on rainy days, sloshing in the mud, it’s amazing to come back to a hot shower, a glass (or three) of wine at dinner, and a three-course meal. (There’s also a cash bar for those who want something other than wine.)

Hotel Bringue (Courtesy Zachary Zimmerman)

Hotel Bringue (Courtesy Zachary Zimmerman)

And that’s my long-winded attempt to explain my three-peat on this project, so I’ll stop here. But please feel free to reach out to Earthwatch to connect us. I’m happy to answer questions about the trip and to help in any way that I can. And I hope to see you in Andorra in the future! (You can bet I’ll be back for more.)

To learn more about this project, visit the Earthwatch website: Wildlife in the Changing Andorran Pyrenees.

Three Generations of Earthwatch Volunteers, Three Generations of Memories

By Chip Martin, Earthwatch Volunteer

Chip Martin is the third generation in his family to travel with Earthwatch. Collectively, they have traveled to Hawaii, Australia, Idaho, and Belize, where Chip participated in his first expedition, Shark Conservation in Belize. Chip shares memories from his family’s time in the field.

Chip during the Earthwatch expedition Shark Conservation in Belize.

Chip during the Earthwatch expedition Shark Conservation in Belize.

I am a third-generation Earthwatch volunteer. My grandmother found and planned the first trip in 1982, not knowing that many more would follow over the next three decades, spanning three generations of her family. Thirty-five years after the first trip, I was finally able to go on one of my own this year. After my expedition, I was still the same person, but I was somehow different. My time spent on that expedition helped me to decide what I wanted to do later in my life. It helped me decide to study environmental engineering.

The second Earthwatch trip was to a ranch outside Broken Hill, in New South Wales, Australia in 1990. My grandparents, my mother, and her two brothers went on the trip. My grandpa, Walter Gilges, describes why they went: “It was just something useful to do with the family. We could make a difference, learn about a new place and meet wonderful people,” he recalls.

The objective of the trip was to study the effect of rainfall in arid zones on the competition between sheep and kangaroo populations. The volunteers would assist the scientists in many tasks, including collecting vegetation samples, catching kangaroos to be weighed, measured, and tagged, and tracking kangaroo movement through triangulation of radio signals on collared individuals. My grandpa has always been a hands-on type of person, and, as he told me, his favorite part of the expedition was helping to mend fences in the outback. “What I do remember is the Australian Customs Officer who asked ‘Why did you come here to study those pests?’”

Chip's mother, Julie, during an expedition in Australia studying the population of kangaroos.In 1997, my grandparents went back to Australia for their third expedition. This time they ventured to Useless Loop in Western Australia. The objective of this expedition was to learn how to keep feral cats and foxes out of a prong (peninsula) near Shark Bay, Australia in order to protect endangered marsupials, specifically bandicoots and bettongs. “We would go out at night, with only flashlights, driving in the pitch dark along the fence trying to spot the foxes and cats that were approaching the fence,” my Grandpa says.

My Grandpa’s last Earthwatch trip was to Idaho in 2008 to study the impact of sheep on sagebrush (an invasive plant species). As he remembers, he chose this particular trip because he enjoyed building fences in Australia so much that he wanted to do something like it again.

Finally, I went on my own Earthwatch expedition this past summer, 2017, to South Water Caye, Belize – a small island 14 miles off the coast of Belize. The objective of the project, Shark Conservation in Belize, was to study how shark and ray populations are affected by a No-Fishing zone. Every morning we would get up at 8 a.m. to get to breakfast on time. Then, by 9a.m., we would be at the dock cutting up bait for the long-lines or BRUVS (Baited Remote Underwater Camera).

The BRUVS were dropped outside the barrier reef to a depth of 80 feet to record how many sharks were in the area, and the long-lines were placed inside the barrier reef to catch nurse sharks and stingrays. We went on a snorkel trip almost every day to various locations along the barrier reef, some of which were places that only the locals knew about, such as a sinkhole and a reef with corals of all colors.

The reason I chose to go on this particular trip was the ocean. I’ve always loved the ocean and I’m still fascinated by everything that lives in it. I went into this trip just wanting to have fun by the water while working with sharks. I later realized that I really chose the trip because I wanted to make a difference and help do something that would be beneficial to the Earth. I came out of this trip having learned more about shark conservation issues than I had ever thought possible.

My Earthwatch experience was a once in a lifetime trip that I’m very glad to have been a part of.

From Boston to Playa Grande, Costa Rica – A Mission to Conserve the Eastern Pacific Leatherback

A leatherback sea turtle on the shores of Playa Grande. (Photo: Carrie Lederer)

A leatherback sea turtle on the shores of Playa Grande. (Photo: Carrie Lederer)

By Laura St. Andrews, Costa Rican Sea Turtles Field Team Leader

Laura measuring a sea turtle hatchling.

Laura measuring a sea turtle hatchling.

Laura’s passion for sea turtle conservation brought her from Earthwatch headquarters in Boston to Costa Rica, where she now works as field manager for The Leatherback Trust. She shares her first encounter with a sea turtle and where that experience has led her since then.

After graduating from college, I joined the Earthwatch team back in 2014. I was so excited to work for an organization that values supporting robust data collection and makes science not only accessible, but also changes mindsets to make conservation a part of volunteers’ lives long after they come back from the field. Getting in the field with Earthwatch is truly an incomparable experience for any curious, adventurous spirit. For over two years, I was lucky enough to be a part of an organization with dedicated staff around the world, working to make our planet a more biologically diverse, healthy, and beautiful place for every critter, plant, and organism.

Earthwatch volunteers patrol the beach of La Playa Grande.

Earthwatch volunteers patrol the beach of Playa Grande.

As an Earthwatch staff member, I was also able to go to El Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas in Playa Grande, Costa Rica for nine days as a volunteer. It was here that a light switch turned on for me and life as I knew it would never be the same. I saw my first leatherback sea turtle and heard the story of their rapid, alarming decline. In just two decades, poaching combined with unregulated fisheries in the Pacific have effectively wiped out generations of an amazing keystone species. Now, the Eastern Pacific leatherback is the most endangered population of sea turtles in the world. A healthy pulse of our oceans affects all ecological corners of the earth – regardless of their proximity to the water. Sea turtles are major contributors to the strength of that healthy pulse. Patrolling the beaches of Playa Grande was a privilege, and after learning the critically endangered leatherback’s story, I wanted to put all of my energy into keeping these animals on our planet, restoring their populations to a healthy status.

Laura studies a nesting leatherback sea turtle as two Earthwatch volunteers look on. (Photo: Carrie Lederer)

Laura studies a nesting leatherback sea turtle as two Earthwatch volunteers look on. (Photo: Carrie Lederer)

The next fielding season, I came back to Playa Grande as a field biologist. Leaving Earthwatch was bittersweet as I knew I’d miss the work and team, but getting a chance to go back to the largest nesting beach for the Eastern Pacific leatherback in Costa Rica was a real dream come true. And, I loved it – every rewarding, exhausting night and day.

The more that I learned as a field biologist and from the team of field biologists that I worked with, the more passionate I became in my mission to protect these animals. So, when the field season in Playa Grande finished, with the lowest recorded number of nesting Eastern Pacific leatherbacks, I was as motivated as ever to continue the pursuit to protect our sea turtles and oceans. I set out to South Padre Island, Texas to learn more about different species and conservation methodologies with Sea Turtle, Inc.

While in Texas, I was ecstatic to learn that I had the opportunity to go back to Playa Grande the following season as the field team leader. Now, I am lucky enough to work every day with an incredibly dedicated and hard-working group of field biologists. We are really looking forward to meeting our Earthwatch volunteers this season!


With the help of dedicated citizen scientists from all over the world, we are able to work within a national park that is reserved for only biologists and park rangers at night. It is a remarkably special experience and one that I hope many volunteers will chose to contribute to and be changed as much as I have been.

I hope that you will join both myself and the skilled, gregarious team of biologists down here in Playa Grande on the Earthwatch expedition Costa Rican Sea Turtles!

How Two Weeks in Belize (Honestly) Changed my Life

Chapman - Credit Lisa Wester (52)

Ryan Saraie

Ryan Saraie

By Ryan Saraie, Earthwatch Ignite Fellow 2013

In July 2013, Ryan participated on the expedition Shark Conservation in Belize as part of the Earthwatch Ignite Fellowship Program. Having endured the challenges of field research, mosquitoes, and inconsistent weather patterns, he lives to tell his tale.

Kneeling on a boat in the middle of the ocean, with the nearest patch of land barely in sight, I was instructed by the researchers leading the expedition to tag the shark we recently captured. It was just measured, but we needed to label it to be able to track it and build on the data we collected. Although I was nervous about tagging the shark, I was able to overcome my fears and get the job done.

I didn’t know that I would potentially be engaging with animals in such a direct manner when I applied to the Earthwatch Ignite summer program. In fact, I didn’t know what I would be doing at all. My biology teacher the preceding academic year told our class that the opportunity was a life-changing experience and that we should apply. I had a mostly open summer, and a two-week research expedition sounded amazing, so I applied. I am still baffled that a panel of experienced professionals read through my application and decided that I deserved this fellowship.

Sharks swimming in the waters off the coast of South Water Caye.

Sharks swimming in the waters off the coast of South Water Caye.

The expedition was incredible. Two weeks of conservation-based marine research studying the effects of recently passed government regulations that limited the types and number of sharks that could be fished. Led by a doctoral candidate from SUNY-Stony Brook, Jasmine Valentin-Albanese, our cohort of eight students collected data from sharks and other fish to determine the effects of said regulations. In addition to Jasmine, we teamed with Debbie Hadley, our Earthwatch facilitator who flew over with us to Belize, and Esther Kang, an employee from the Durfee Foundation – the organization who supports the Ignite program. Two researchers native to Belize – Bert and Norlan – guided us in the specifics of our daily work.

During our two weeks, we were not on the mainland, but on a small island named South Water Caye. It held a research center and a small resort. While it was a very small community, quite a few people lived there, living off of what the island has to offer.

The research consisted of collecting data from fish and examining video footage of marine ecosystems. When engaging with fish, we measured small groupers and larger sharks. In both cases, we gathered data such as fin length, fish length, and fish width. The smaller fish that fishermen from the island caught earlier would be cooked and served as food after being measured, proving useful for research and for meals. We also captured sharks in order to quickly take measurements and collect samples before releasing them.

A researcher sets up a baited remote underwater video (BRUV) camera.

A researcher sets up a baited remote underwater video (BRUV) camera.

The video-based research consisted of watching footage of marine fish populations. The videos were recorded by underwater devices known as BRUVs (Baited Remote Underwater Video). When watching these videos, we were looking for sharks and recording how many we identified.

I went through a full range of emotions during this expedition. I missed my family a lot. Interacting with sharks and other fish types was new to me, but the work was enjoyable and exciting. Above everything else, I gained interest in the field of environmental conservation. The research we were a part of was important, and it felt good to be involved in a project that would support sharks and the Belizean ecosystem. Earthwatch certainly helped cement my long-term interests in protecting the environment.

I am currently studying Environmental Economics & Policy at UC Berkeley. I am involved in a few student organizations dedicated to environmental responsibility, including our student government’s Sustainability Club. I am interested in pursuing a career in environmental policy. These details would probably be completely different had I chosen not to participate in the Earthwatch program.

I found the direction where I wanted to take my life, and continue to follow it to this day. Those two weeks were truly eye-opening; I won’t forget them any time soon.

Safety in the Storm

By Dianna Bell, Earthwatch Multimedia Coordinator

This summer ushered in a series of natural disasters, which are currently still ravaging parts of the world. From hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria, to earthquakes in Mexico, to wildfires in northwestern North America – Earthwatch field sites have been directly impacted by these destructive events. The research we conduct is all the more relevant in light of major changes that are impacting wildlife and ecosystems in these regions, but the safety and welfare of our field teams is always a priority. Through our rigorous risk management process and culture of safety, we continue to weather these storms.

This week, I spoke to Earthwatch’s Chief Scientist Cristina Eisenberg and Director of Program Delivery Heather Pruiksma who shared insights on how Earthwatch manages incidents in the field. In September, a team fielding on Cristina’s project Restoring Fire, Wolves, and Bison to the Canadian Rockies had to be evacuated due to encroaching wildfires, but throughout the experience, Cristina said both she and the volunteers felt entirely supported by the proactive assistance Earthwatch provided.

Fire ecologist and firefighter Jon Trapp speaks with Earthwatch volunteers about the wildfires. (Photo: Stephen Hart)

Fire ecologist and firefighter Jon Trapp speaks with Earthwatch volunteers about the wildfires. (Photo: Stephen Hart)

As a researcher and fire ecologist, what was it like for you when the fires started encroaching on your project site? What did you do to mitigate the risks?

Cristina: Fire season typically begins around middle to end July and then it goes until it snows. So I started looking at all the fires in the area and started tracking them in early July.

I check the fires almost every day. If there’s a big windstorm and humidity plummets, then you get something called a blowup. So I checked the fire that was burning to the northwest of our field site in Waterton Lakes National Park, about 40 miles away. I’d been tracking that fire since it began around the third week in August and it was tiny – about 100 acres. Then I tracked it as it got to be almost 1,000 acres, around September 3rd.  

Forty miles, two big mountain ranges, and two big lakes stood between our field site and that fire. So the odds of it reaching us were minimal. This assessment was verified by the park managers as well as a PhD student studying with me who has been a wild land firefighter for many years.

The volunteers arrived on September 4th. The next day, the fire that had been so far away started heading toward Alberta. The park chief of science came over that night to speak with us and said that while it’s highly unlikely the fire would reach us, she recommended we proactively evacuate slightly in advance of a mandatory evacuation. So we voluntarily packed everything up and post evacuation, we safely collected critically important data well away from the fire zone.

I communicated with our Earthwatch staff every day about our status. We also had to be further evacuated a second time, and throughout it all, Heather was awesome. Night or day, even at 6 in the morning, she always took my call.

How do you assess risks?

Heather: Cristina assessed the situation every day to monitor where the fire was, what the fire intensity was, what the fire weather was, how the fire was behaving, what the reports were on that, and what the predictions were. And that’s the exact same kind of thing we’re always doing with hurricane predictions and other events. So when something like this is approaching and people know about it, there’s a certain amount of pre-planning that we can do. We can’t fix the wildfire, we can’t fix the hurricane, but we can assess its status and stay up-to-date on the experts’ predictions and what those potential impacts are going to be on an upcoming team.

What are the protocols we have in place to deal with events like this?

Heather: When we’re bringing on a new project in an area where there’s any risk of wildfires, hurricanes, earthquakes, or other event, we develop a detailed “threat assessment.” These assessments, which identify any potential hazards, are conducted for all of the countries and regions in which we operate. They help us to determine whether we’re going to operate in a country in the first place, but also helps direct the conversations we’re going to have with scientists when we’re preparing the risk assessment for their project in that country or region.

Risk assessments dive more deeply into the specifics of the research sites, the research activities, and the times of year teams will be fielding. As part of this process, we make agreements with the scientists in the form of emergency response plans on what to do should emergencies such as hurricanes arise in the field. We also have plans in place for when something arises unexpectedly while a team’s in the field so that the scientists, Earthwatch staff, and the volunteers have access to the same information about our emergency providers, how to reach Earthwatch (day or night), how to use the emergency radios, details on evacuation routes, who conducts the evacuations, and so on.

Cristina, on the right, in the field with Earthwatch Senior Program Manager Caroline Dunn. (Photo: Stephen Hart)

Cristina, on the right, in the field with Earthwatch Senior Program Manager Caroline Dunn. (Photo: Stephen Hart)

How do you prepare for something like an earthquake, which is almost impossible to predict?

Heather: That’s a lot harder because like you said, you can’t predict them. They happen when they happen, but we have plans in place in order to respond to them quickly and effectively. In the case of the Mexico City earthquake, there were no teams in the field, but we did end up cancelling an upcoming team so as not to interfere with recovery efforts.

For example, during a volcano project in Costa Rica several years ago, an earthquake occurred while a team was in the field. However, we had prepared the scientist on how to respond to this type of event, including finding a safe place to stay and maintaining a calm leadership presence. The scientist, in turn, had prepared the volunteers on how to behave in the event of a problem in the field as part of the initial safety briefing at the start of the team. The scientist did a great job of following the response plan and making sure everyone was safe and comfortable, and we were able to support their incident response from headquarters. There were no injuries and everyone returned home happy and healthy.    

Warren Stortroen – 100 Cheers for an Extraordinary Volunteer!

After a 40-year career spent working in an office, Warren Stortroen decided to give back and travel the world while doing so. Over the past 22 years, Warren has spent 1,089 days collecting critical environmental and archaeological data across 67 projects in nearly 30 countries around the world. This summer, he hit his 100th Earthwatch expedition!

Warren, on right, celebrates his 100th expedition with Dr. Susan Ryan, lead scientist of the project Uncovering the Mysteries of Colorado's Pueblo Communities.

Warren, on right, celebrates his 100th expedition with Dr. Susan Ryan, lead scientist of the project Uncovering the Mysteries of Colorado’s Pueblo Communities.

Minnesota native Warren Stortroen worked in an office as an insurance claims manager for nearly 40 years. While he rarely traveled during his professional life, he spent considerable time planning for his retirement adventures. Warren joined his first Earthwatch expedition in 1996, studying bird species in Costa Rica. Since then, he’s traveled to the Peruvian Amazon, Australia’s Kangaroo Island, the Galapagos, and well beyond— sometimes visiting the same project two or three times. As the number of his Earthwatch expeditions has increased over the years, his reputation has been preceding him to the field sites. Other volunteers feel honored to be on the same research team as him. There’s even a fan club named the “Warren-ites.” In September 2017, Warren hit a major milestone: he joined his 100th expedition at the Crow Canyon archaeology site in southwest Colorado.

It’s incredible what Warren has accomplished over the past 20 years. At age 85, he continues to work alongside teens and millennials tracking killer whales in Iceland, hiking through the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and exploring an active volcano in Nicaragua. Warren is an inspiration—reminding us, time and again, of the importance of stepping up to the challenge.

And the quotes from scientists and his fellow volunteers speak to the impact Warren has had across the globe he has so well traveled.

“Crow Canyon Archaeological Center started its Earthwatch partnership in 2013. One of our first participants was Warren Stortroen. While it was Crow Canyon’s first [Earthwatch expedition], Warren was already a seasoned veteran with experience from around the world, including archaeology! Warren is such a delight every week he works with us. Participants and staff love flipping through his photo albums and listening to his stories. He guides and inspires the other [Earthwatch] citizen scientists as well as the Crow Canyon staff.” – From the staff at Crow Canyon Archaeological Center

“He has always been a pleasure to work with: the smile of contentment never leaves his face, and he is appreciative, interested in the work and careful to get it right. An ideal Earthwatch volunteer; long may he continue.” – Dr. John Murray, volcanologist on the expedition Exploring an Active Volcano in Nicaragua

“My enduring memory of Warren was when we were surveying on the Masaya volcano crater rim in February 2017 – his 96th expedition, my first! We came across some paw prints in the (warm) ash, which with his naturally infectious enthusiasm and engaging erudition, classified them as feline and likely to be made by an ocelot. This being my first such encounter, I couldn’t contain my excitement as we followed them to a cacophony of prints around its burrow – where Warren calmly rounded-off this unprecedented experience for me with a rich insight to the behaviour of ocelots. Thank you, Warren, for being such a gentleman and a scholar – I hope you will continue to enjoy every one of your multitude of Earthwatch memories as much as I will do of mine with you.” – Stephen Middleton, Exploring an Active Volcano in Nicaragua

Warren on the Earthwatch expedition Exploring an Active Volcano in Nicaragua.

Warren on the Earthwatch expedition Exploring an Active Volcano in Nicaragua.

“I remember Warren as a particularly valued member of the team because he set an example to all of us, not just the other volunteers but also the staff. This was because this was our first Earthwatch field season and we were a little anxious and stressed to make sure it would succeed, but Warren was experienced, calm and unflappable. He was absolutely reliable and worked really hard to make the work a success. We all learned from Warren that we should keep calm, adapt to situations and keep working hard, and we would get the job done.” – Dr. Christopher Joyce, lead scientist on the expedition Baltic Island Wetlands and Birds

“I had heard about Warren long before I met him, but I did meet him, surveying meadows in California. He was a joy! …His stories of his many expeditions (only 94 or so back then) were fascinating – he gave me so many ideas of expeditions to go on! A great citizen scientist and a delightful person.” – Brenda Sullivan, Restoring Meadows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

Warren during the Earthwatch expedition Saving Joshua Tree's Desert Species.

Warren during the Earthwatch expedition Saving Joshua Tree’s Desert Species.

Thank you, Warren!

Fostering a Global Community of Earthwatch Ambassadors

By Kyle Gaw, Earthwatch Digital Marketing Manager

Earthwatch advocates come from near and far to support our mission to unite citizens with scientists. Here, we highlight some of the personal motivations that are driving individuals to get involved.

I recently spoke to a friend about how an iceberg roughly the size of Delaware had broken free from Antarctica. We started to lament the seemingly inevitable, and extremely complex, consequences of climate change. At one point my friend turned to me and said, “I’m not a scientist. So honestly, what can I even do at this point?”

For me, my friend’s statement encapsulated the importance of Earthwatch’s mission to propagate the benefits of citizen science. It is not just scientists’ responsibility to study and protect the planet; the duty belongs to everyone. The world needs advocates for scientific research more than ever before.

We launched the Earthwatch Ambassador Program a little over a year ago with the goal of fostering a community of Earthwatch advocates. We wanted to offer a vessel for like-minded, concerned citizens to unite over a common cause: the desire to improve our planet. We’ve seen tremendous growth in the short time that the program has been running. The program is growing consistently thanks to the work of our dedicated ambassadors.

Our global network is comprised of people from every nook and cranny of the planet – from the U.S. to Australia to Mexico to Kenya, and beyond.

The reach of the program has been inspiring for us to witness. In fact, we’re proud to say that we have Earthwatch Ambassadors on every continent aside from Antarctica. (Although, we are tossing around the idea of making one lucky penguin an honorary member just to check off every continent.)

These concerned individuals come to Earthwatch with different perspectives of the environmental issues occurring in their respective parts of the globe. For many, the motivation to join Earthwatch’s Ambassador Program stems from a desire to be a part of positive change or, as one member from Trinidad and Tobago put it when asked what their motivation was for joining the program: I guess it’s being part of a greater cause and being able to make a positive impact somewhere around the world.

Many of our Ambassador Program members come to us with the hope of creating positive change on a global scale. For some, the desire to make a positive impact stems from the immediate issues that they see threatening their own environment. As one Australian Ambassador said, The effects of climate change are being felt in Australia through more extreme weather patterns. Big industries and urban development continue to put significant pressures on the environment and its flora and fauna systems, and in many cases they are abetted by government. These issues are echoed around the world…

The professional backgrounds of our Ambassador Program members have shed light on just how diverse participants are. One Ambassador from England highlighted this nicely: I work in sales and marketing and do not have a science background. Participating in Earthwatch projects makes me feel that I am helping, albeit in a small way, towards the conservation of our planet. By being an Earthwatch Ambassador, I want to be able to reassure others like me that it is possible to be a citizen scientist and to make a difference to the world.

We’re always thrilled to see former volunteers recruiting their friends and family members to join them in the field. One thing that we want to see all past team members do is to leverage their own experiences in the field to enrich their lives and the lives of others around them. We love hearing about the creative ways that volunteers have used their experiences in the field to their advantage in their day-to-day lives.

One teacher from the United States is taking their experience in the field and using it to encourage the next generation to become advocates for quality scientific research. I’m hoping the Ambassador Program will give me a platform to draw more of my own students into the program. While our district does a great job of sending several teachers on Earthwatch expeditions every year, I feel Earthwatch’s impact would be magnified through the experience of students. This is particularly true of students like my own juniors and seniors in physics, who are mostly college-bound but have not made up their mind about a field of study. At their impressionable age, a meaningful experience with environmental science research could give them the impetus to realign their future study plans.

It’s encouraging to learn how people from every part of the globe are using their experiences with Earthwatch to make the world a better place. No matter the personal motivations that drive people to join the Ambassador community, it’s clear that Ambassador Program members can rally around the shared vision for a better planet. We’re thrilled to see this program thriving and look forward to the watch it continue to evolve.

If you’re ready to join the Ambassador community or would like some more information, visit Earthwatch’s Ambassador Program page.

On the Path to Becoming a Female STEM Role Model in Acadia

By Sophia Ludtke, Spring Power & Gas Fellow

This summer, through a sponsorship with Spring Power & Gas, high schooler Sophia Ludtke traveled to Maine to take part on the Earthwatch expedition Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park. Sophia shares her experience from her time in the field.

Sophia conducting field work in Acadia National Park.

Sophia conducting field work in Acadia National Park.

Through the very generous sponsorship of Spring Power & Gas, I was given the opportunity to join 12 other high school students in Acadia National Park this summer to examine how climate change is impacting the biodiversity in this region of Maine. From a young age, I have loved both science and the outdoors, but before this trip, I never could have imagined how these two interests could be combined in such an exciting way. By participating in research conducted outdoors in the field through the work of citizen scientists and professionals alike, I now know how accessible science can be.

Specifically, we were looking at how warming temperatures are impacting bird migration and fruit availability––and the overlap between the two. The scientists leading this research hypothesize that birds seeking cool temperatures are migrating further north during the winter, thus passing over Acadia during their return flight south later in the season. Meanwhile, warmer temperatures, scientists speculate, are causing fruit to bloom earlier in the season. If both of these hypotheses are true, this timing mismatch could deprive birds of the fuel they need for their long migration, while also depriving the plants of the fruit consumers they rely on to spread their seeds.

As our leading scientist Dr. Feldman explained, this interaction is a microcosm for what is happening around the globe. We know that temperatures are rising, but we don’t know exactly how this may affect our planet’s animals, plants, and people. While, at times, climate change can seem like a huge issue, too big for one individual to tackle, this experience helped shift my perspective, allowing me to recognize the impact small contributions can have. From biology driven research, like what we were doing in Acadia, to an engineering innovation, to an environmentally-conscious policy or law, to a powerful piece of artwork –– it is uplifting to know there are many ways in which people are already fighting for a healthier planet.

While I still don’t know exactly what role I may play, this experience reaffirmed my desire to be a part of the fight.

This experience also immersed me in the whole scientific process and made me realize that it’s something I admire and identify with. Each day in the field was a little different: we’d trek through thick brush to set up 1 meter by 2 meter plots; we’d crouch down on intertidal rocks in search of invertebrates; we’d fill red and yellow cups with water in hopes of catching insects; we’d count the number of huckleberries in each of our plots. At times, the work was challenging, but I truly felt like the data we were collecting could be used to discover something new, something of importance on a global scale.

To be working side by side with a professional scientist at such a young age was incredibly empowering.

One highlight of the week was a presentation given by a female scientist conducting research similar to what we were doing. She described her work, answered questions, and asked us about our interests. Even though female role models in STEM abound in movies, books, articles, etc., it was so inspirational to get to talk to a female scientist in person. It made me realize that someday I could be like her, getting to present research I was passionate about to a new generation of aspiring female scientists.

My week in Acadia flew by, and if I could return, I would do so in a heartbeat.

I miss the breathtaking scenery. It was almost magical to look up at the stars in the pure midnight sky. Spending a week feeling this connected to nature reaffirmed the importance of preserving our planet’s natural beauty for future generations to enjoy.

I miss the science. From counting caterpillars, to looking through microscopes, to searching for hermit crabs, it was a once in a lifetime experience to be immersed in this type of learning environment. I feel as if I’ve found a field – environmental science – that I really identify with and may want to pursue down the road.

But, most of all, I miss the people. We all bonded so much, whether counting huckleberries or looking up at the magical night sky. I know that we will all keep in touch for years to come.

I am so thankful to have had this incredible experience, and I hope many more students down the road get to enjoy this same life-changing experience.

To learn more about this expedition, visit our website – Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park.

Hiking, Song Birds, and Finding a Path to Environmentalism through Earthwatch


By Judith Santano, Ignite Fellow 2013 and Earthwatch Educator Program Intern

Judith Santano

Judith Santano

The first time I can remember falling in love with the earth was when I went to Wyoming to study songbirds for two weeks. I can remember being mesmerized by everything around me and was struggling to take it all in. I couldn’t believe that the world was so green and that the air was so clean. I was even having trouble breathing because the air was so smog free. Every day I woke up to the sound of countless birds and deer outside my cabin. That trip was full of many firsts for me. From hiking, seeing a bear, learning bird calls, and seeing the Milky Way, to just being away from home. Each day was a new adventure full of excitement, laughter, learning, intellectual and emotional growth, and pure, unadulterated happiness.

To this day, nothing has changed my life as radically as those two weeks did.

I had always been the nerdy kid who loved science, but being on this trip was like flipping a switch in terms of environmentalism. Being from L.A., I had no prior experience being immersed in nature like that. I never really knew what the environment entailed, or that it was at risk of being destroyed. After being in the middle of it, I realized how important and necessary it was to care for the environment. This trip opened my eyes to a whole new world and showed me that there was more than one way to love science. Although I didn’t completely know it when I was 15, Earthwatch would influence the path I would take in my studies, career, and life.


The scientific research I was able to participate in was not what I was expecting at all. Our days consisted of hiking across rivers and through visible clouds of pollen to find songbirds that most people wouldn’t usually slow down to appreciate. We banded songbirds and kept track of their nests in order to monitor changes in their populations. I remember I was in disbelief when our scientist told us that the data we were collecting was going into a national database that has existed for decades. It felt so cool to be a part of something so significant and bigger than just our team. Having to patiently observe these beautiful creatures that I had previously taken for granted was such an eye opening experience. It taught me to see the importance of everything around me, no matter how small it may seem.

I still find myself enchanted by the birds I see every day of my life. I always slow down to watch them fly and try to catch the subtle differences between their calls.

DSC_4424Now it’s been four years since my trip, and I still constantly talk about how I fell in love with the earth in Wyoming. I’m going into my junior year at Stanford University and I’m majoring in Earth Systems. I’ve chosen a track that allows me to study the impact humans have on the environment, but also gives me the opportunity to learn how to be an effective science communicator, as well as the importance of environmental education. Earthwatch has always been my role model in the process of figuring out that science, communication, and education are what I’m passionate about. For the past four years, I’ve dreamt of returning to work for Earthwatch and repaying them for leaving such a lasting impression on my life. And this summer, I finally got the opportunity as I traveled to Boston to intern with the organization. I cannot express how fortunate I feel to be interning with the Ignite program – a program that had such a profound impact on my life – and be a part of the organization that changes people’s lives.

Whenever someone asks me why I picked Earth Systems as my major, I respond with, “Because my heart yearns for the earth.”

And it all started with Earthwatch. They gave me the opportunity to fall in love with the earth. Those memories and those feelings of wanting to work for something bigger than myself are what I will carry with me for the rest of my life.

Into the Peruvian Amazon – The Journey of an EY-Earthwatch Ambassador

The team of 2017 EY-Earthwatch Ambassadors in the Peruvian Amazon.

The team of 2017 EY-Earthwatch Ambassadors in the Peruvian Amazon.

By Tara Servais, EY-Earthwatch Ambassador 2017

As part of EY’s commitment to supporting entrepreneurs and minimizing our environmental footprint, I was selected – along with a team of nine other EY colleagues from across the Americas – to participate in the EY-Earthwatch Ambassadors Program. On Amazon Riverboat Exploration, our diverse team included members representing five countries, all of EY’s core competencies, and several different native languages. Each of us departed from our hometowns to arrive together in Peru where we began our journey deep into the Amazon with two main goals: 1) team together on a skills-based project to support a local scientist and entrepreneur connected to Amazon preservation in his business efforts and 2) support his research studying the impact of climate change on biodiverse communities.

Over the past several years, the Peruvian Amazon has been experiencing impacts of climate change ranging from great levels of flooding to droughts and drastic wildlife population changes. The basin of the Samiria River is now a flooded forest environment with largely diverse plants and animal inhabitants. The local communities that live in the Amazon rely heavily on the sustainability of the environment and wildlife for food, shelter and other basic human necessities. Dr. Richard Bodmer – Earthwatch lead scientist and founder of AmazonEco, a research expedition business – has dedicated the past 30 years of his life to Amazon preservation efforts by conducting research and using the data collected to influence government conservation policy.


The research expedition

Our team met in Iquitos, Peru for initial introductions and project briefing. The next day, we boarded a bus and voyaged two hours into the Amazon where we met our home for the next seven days: a historic riverboat built in the 1890s.

Over the course of the next week, our team spent early mornings and afternoons working with Dr. Bodmer and his team of biologists to study wildlife populations and record data. Our research included surveying population density on pink dolphins, various exotic bird species and terrestrial animals such as sloths, anteaters, and monkeys. We caught caiman and piranhas to measure their relative size and recorded the data for further comparison analysis to be conducted.



The skills-based project

For the skills-based project, we worked into the late evening hours examining AmazonEco’s business operations. The team reviewed the balance sheets, interviewed Dr. Bodmer on revenue streams, understood marketing and communication efforts, and analyzed where marginal profits could increase with low risk to the business.

At the conclusion of the week, our EY team presented the business recommendations to Dr. Bodmer. We found ways to streamline business processes and expand operational revenues summarized in three key areas: marketing, operational and financial optimization, and business development. We provided tangible advice with deliverables that could be implemented in real time as well as a future-looking state of business that would allow him to run AmazonEco’s business operations more soundly.

After a week of getting to know Dr. Bodmer, his research team, the habitats, and local communities that our research would help to conserve, it was difficult to say goodbye. After final parting words, we boarded a bus back to the Iquitos airport and continued the final leg of our journey to Lima.

EY-Lima visit

On our final day, our team arrived at the EY Lima office where we were greeted and escorted to a conference hall. We presented our EY-Earthwatch experience and findings to a group of EY associates who arrived to hear of our expedition. Following our presentation, our team had the opportunity to learn about the sectors most important to Peru’s economy and engage with the local Climate Change and Sustainability Services team. It was remarkable to be in another EY office so far from home, yet the feeling was so familiar to my own office environment. The vastness of EY’s global presence was apparent in that very moment.

The team spent time with a local community school, sharing research and watching special Mother's Day presentations.

The team spent time with a local community school, sharing research and watching special Mother’s Day presentations.

The conclusion, but not the end

Ten strangers came together and found commonality: the one EY culture that we share.

Not one of us experienced this journey the same way. I left with appreciation for the Amazon and a compelling desire to educate others on the importance of working to preserve our planet Earth. The skills based project helped me further develop leadership skills for effectively collaborating in a group setting. The project also gave me confidence in expressing my viewpoints and exercising personal business strengths among a diverse group of peers. I am thankful for this amazing opportunity EY has afforded me and will never forget the individuals, who I now call lifelong friends, that contributed to this incredible experience.

To learn more about the research being conducted on this expedition, visit our project page: Amazon Riverboat Exploration.


Citizen Science, Trees, and the Quest for Urban Resiliency

Cambridge, MA

By Kathryn Dunn, Earthwatch Multimedia Intern

Between 2012 and 2015, nearly 9,000 trees in Cambridge, Massachusetts were measured and monitored by both researchers and citizen scientists. Arborist for the City of Cambridge, David Lefcourt, and research director, Vanessa Boukili, Ph.D., led this effort with the extensive help of Earthwatch volunteers. The findings produced by this research are crucial to understanding the relationship between urban forests and urban resiliency.


Urban forests are the trees that live in an urban setting, such as those you would see planted along a busy sidewalk or in a city park. The resiliency of an urban environment is a city’s ability to adapt to stress-inducing factors, such as climate change, while continuing to survive and thrive. Resiliency is contingent on a variety of factors, but the proper maintenance and understanding of urban forests is more influential than you may think.

An Earthwatch volunteer measures a tree in Cambridge, MA.

An Earthwatch volunteer measures a tree in Cambridge, MA.

When properly maintained, urban trees provide numerous and somewhat unexpected benefits to cities. Beside their aesthetic value, urban trees can cleanse the air, conserve water from runoff, provide shade and cooling, take the edge off city life, and much more. Several studies demonstrate that healthy urban landscapes are positively correlated with lower prevalence of health conditions such as diabetes, stroke, and heart disease.

A better understanding of how to strategically plant and maintain these shady refuges to get the most out of them is critical to urban resiliency.


Despite the clear benefits of urban forests, the trees that produce these desired affects face numerous threats. Climate change tops Lefcourt’s worry list, he says, noting that Cambridge’s trees leafed out much more slowly this year because of last year’s drought and irregular spring weather. These trees also deal with pressure from pollution, disease, lack of adequate exposure to sunlight, and lack of sufficient water.

Additionally, researchers who study these trees face obstacles in their quest to enhance urban resiliency. As expressed by Boukili, “One of the primary challenges we face is collecting data from large numbers of trees. Because there are a lot of different factors that influence tree survival and growth, we need data from many thousands of trees to figure out which factors are most important.”




Between 2012 and 2015, Boukili, Lefcourt, and other Earthwatch staff trained nearly 550 volunteers to act as “citizen scientists” capable of collecting data and monitoring about 25 percent of the urban trees in Cambridge. The data collected was used in a study to test three new models of tree growth and to supply information with which to estimate ecosystem services on an individual tree and city-wide scale.

The Cambridge study produced data that indicated higher survival rates, lower growth rates, and lower levels of carbon intake than were predicted by other models.

The findings will impact what city planners need to take into consideration when planting trees, and also have the potential to improve the function of current models used to evaluate urban forests.


Earthwatch continues to contribute to the fight to enhance the resiliency of cities through our one-day projects in the Earthwatch Urban Resiliency Program. Here, volunteers identify and measure trees – producing an amount of data that would be nearly impossible for researchers to collect on their own. The information collected also provides the necessary means to answer the larger questions about our urban spaces. The effective utilization and understanding of green space in the growing urban environment is reliant upon this type of data collection.

As our communities are faced with change, we recognize the significance of resiliency and we will continue to work to extend this type of research to other cities.

“We know we’ve got work to do to ensure that our urban ecosystems are resilient in the face of climate change. There’s no better way to do that than to involve citizens directly in the research itself so they become true ambassadors of our shared environment.” – Scott Kania, Earthwatch CEO

Sea Turtles and Malibu Rum in the Bahamas – The Beginnings of a Beautiful Partnership

Earthwatch Lead Scientist Annabelle Brooks with a team of researchers and Malibu influencers.

By Heather Wilcox, Earthwatch’s Director of Annual Giving

As a fundraiser for Earthwatch, I spend most of my time reaching out to potential donors, tens of thousands of times each year. Most will go unanswered. Thankfully, I don’t take it personally. But every now and again, a potential donor searches you out. This rare turn of events is exactly what happened in early March when a mysterious woman with a Swedish accent called me from a bustling airport to discuss a new corporate partnership opportunity. Through the boarding call announcements, I learned that she represented Malibu Rum, which is produced in Barbados, and was in search of a nonprofit partner to support sea turtle conservation in the Caribbean. Their goal was to send a film crew to record our work and then promote it through social media, including an Instagram fundraising challenge where they hoped to raise $100,000. Malibu had shortlisted Earthwatch as one of a few potential charities.

“$100,000 U.S. dollars?” I remember asking, still in disbelief that such a huge opportunity was now at our fingertips. “Yes, U.S. dollars” she laughed. “Does this sound like something Earthwatch would be interested in?”

“Absolutely!” I replied, still waiting for the catch. “Wonderful” she said. “Because of staff scheduling we are working with a pretty tight window right now… we will need to have filming wrapped by the end of the month.”

Ahh… there it is, I thought. There was no way a small and stretched nonprofit like Earthwatch could orchestrate the myriad of details that would need to go into this in just a few weeks… could we? As it turned out, in a wonderful aligning of the stars – we could! Our Tracking Sea Turtles in the Bahamas expedition wouldn’t have teams in the field at that time; lead scientist Annabelle Brooks was available and willing to go on camera; the research lent itself well to accommodating a small film crew; and, most importantly, I work with an amazingly talented, motivated, and passionate team that was willing to unilaterally prioritize this effort to make it happen. About a week later, Malibu let us know that Earthwatch was their clear top choice for partnership, and so began my first whirlwind adventure as part of a location video shoot.

One of the beautiful beaches of Eleuthera.

One of the beautiful beaches of Eleuthera.

Being sent to the Bahamas for work may sound glamorous, but my daydreams of leisurely meals at beachside cafés quickly vanished when I saw the production schedule: one day to scout, one and a half days to film, four locations, 10-14 hour days with little room for error. Any lack of cooperation by the weather or our flippered friends would cost us the shot. The pressure was on.

Eleuthera, a gorgeous 100-mile long island in the Bahamas, is a fabulous place for leisurely vacations when you have no place to be, but can be challenging when you actually have four places you need to be before losing the light. Marine shoots, I learned, are driven by the angle of the sun and the direction of the tides, since both will impact shot quality due to shadows, turbidity, and glare. Eleuthera’s roads are narrow and rough, internet/cell coverage is spotty, and our “small” crew – with Annabelle and her researchers, multiple camera operators, an underwater dive specialist, sound technician, producers, account managers, talent, assistants and yours truly – numbered close to 30. We literally needed a bigger boat for Day 2. (Thank you to Cape Eleuthera Institute for so graciously providing one in a pinch!)

Fortunately, both the weather and the sea turtles were amenable, and we were able to capture 8 juvenile green turtles for monitoring. I got the chance to participate in this process and let me tell you, it’s not easy to catch a turtle! The process requires a half dozen or more people wading out to waist deep water with a very long, easily snagged or tangled, and quickly-filled-with-seaweed-and-getting-heavier-by-the-minute seine net. You need to move quickly but quietly into a D-shape, and once everyone is in place, you begin walking towards the middle, splashing as much as you can along the way, in order to drive the turtles to the center and close off the net behind them.

Then the real fun begins – trying to grab the turtles as they effortlessly zip through the water and turn on a dime. Let me tell you – turtles are FAST. The best move to catch them when they go by resembles a belly flop that I am sure is highly amusing to watch from the beach. Turtles are also incredibly STRONG, even on their backs. I struggled to hold one especially feisty turtle still after bringing him to shore. Turns out he was a newbie who hadn’t been tagged before and was not going to go quietly: he got in several good slaps and tossed a flipper-full of sand into my face before settling down.

After wrapping the first day, I learned that it takes about four hours of footage to produce a 90-second video. I was amazed at how much time and how many people went into making something so seemingly simple happen. It reminded me of Earthwatch, actually. Starting with our Boston office of about 40 staff, plus the researchers and staff on the ground, and then all our volunteers, you’re looking at one hundred people or more per year and thousands of man hours in the field per expedition to capture the data we need to make a difference. Some projects will run for several years before enough data is collected to be able to inform scientific papers or policy recommendations. And some projects, like our Costa Rican Sea Turtles expedition, will run for decades and we’re still learning. Two years ago, two leatherback turtles who were tagged in our first year of monitoring in Costa Rica – in 1993 – returned to Playa Grande to nest.

This heartwarming story gives us hope of recovery for the critically endangered Eastern Pacific leatherback, and indicates that the protective measures Earthwatch helped implement over 20 years ago are working. It also underscores the powerful role that Earthwatch’s long-term research projects play in conservation. Sometimes decades, careers, even lifetimes are needed to ensure measurable progress. There are no “quick fixes” in conservation, and Earthwatch’s time-tested model enables us to go this distance, no matter how far.

I’m happy to say that the rest of the shoot went according to plan (mostly), and the next morning, our international team scattered back across the globe, departing as abruptly as we had descended on sleepy Eleuthera. Everything happened so fast that I barely snapped any pictures.

Heather (center) with the team of Malibu influencers.

Heather (center) with the team of Malibu influencers.

In true Earthwatch form, I returned home with a wildlife experience I could not have gotten anywhere else, new friendships, and treasured memories that will last a lifetime.

Malibu’s fundraising campaign in support of Earthwatch launches June 16 – World Sea Turtle Day. To get involved, or to learn more about Earthwatch’s 45-year history of sea turtle conservation, visit our website, and follow us on Instagram and Facebook to get the latest updates.

Drought, Meadows, and Climate Change in California’s Sierra Nevada

Hutchinson - credit Tera Dornfield (84)

By Betsy Harbert

Betsy Harbert is a field team leader on the Earthwatch expedition Restoring Meadows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and river science project manager at the South Yuba River Citizens League. Despite California’s influx of rain this year, drought is still a real threat. Betsy explains how the research being conducted on this project is critical to understanding potential threats meadow ecosystems face due to climate change.

In Loney Meadow, a 40-acre wet meadow in the northern Sierra Nevada of California, the snow is melting and the water is flowing. New plant growth peaks through the flowing waters, birds awaken and share their song with the quiet landscape. This year, California experienced record precipitation. The water coursing through Loney Meadow offers a respite from the extreme drought stress the meadow has been put through over the previous five years. But the future of this meadow remains in doubt, extreme weather events are expected to continue because of climate change. The potential for the meadow to be resilient to these extreme events, or the meadow’s ability to perpetuate through time, is entwined with the extent of disturbance this meadow has experienced over the last century.

Plants and animals, including humans, rely on the meadow for a multitude of functions including habitat, food, water filtration and storage, flood attenuation, and carbon storage. These functions have been directly and indirectly degraded by disturbances such as grazing, mining, and logging. The creation and maintenance of a meadow ecosystem is directly tied to its hydrologic regime, defined as the timing and amount of water flow and retention within the meadow. High water tables during the spring and early summer exclude trees and encourage herbaceous plant and woody shrubs adapted to water logged conditions. Soils are often highly productive, resulting in communities of dense sedges, rushes, grasses, and wildflowers. Leaves and litter left behind at the end of the growing season are incorporated as organic matter into the soil which helps sequester carbon and perpetuates the retention of water in the meadow by holding on to water. Thus, the meadow acts like a ‘sponge,’ holding water late into the summer when the surrounding forests are dry. In this way, the meadow is self-sustaining.

Disturbances that disrupt the hydrologic regime of a meadow are often a result of bare soil being exposed. This can happen through historic overgrazing, roads created to access logging or mining sites, or undersized culverts that concentrate water flows through meadows. Once bare soil is exposed, it sets into motion a cycle of erosion that amplifies over time. Erosion increases the capacity of streams so that water courses quickly through the meadow rather than flooding and infiltrating into the meadow to resupply groundwater. This lowers the water table and degrades the ability of the soil to retain water by accelerated decomposition of organic material.

This matters in times of drought and flooding and everything in between for a degraded meadow. It means that the ground water levels needed to maintain the meadow occur less frequently and for a shorter amount of time. When a degraded meadow floods in extreme years, the erosional force of water only compounds the degradation. The work we do to restore Loney Meadow’s important functions, in collaboration with Earthwatch, is pivotal in creating meadow resiliency in the face of climate change.

But it is your duty as an inquisitive and thoughtful resident of earth to not take our word for it. This story line means nothing unless we can actually measure the functions we claim these meadows provide.

In addition, we must demonstrate that our restoration truly leads to improved function and supports a more diverse and dynamic ecosystem. This is where the collaboration with Earthwatch has been critical.

Since 2014, Earthwatch volunteers have helped to collect pre-restoration data at Loney Meadow that characterizes the timing and amount of water moving through, the flora and fauna that live in, and amount of carbon being stored and released. We will measure these same variables post restoration to verify if our hypothesis of increased function as a result of restoration is correct.

Earthwatch volunteers in the Sierra Nevada meadowsIf you are interested in joining us on this important mission, consider signing up for one of our Earthwatch trips this year or next. We are expecting to implement the restoration at Loney Meadow in the fall of 2017 and we continue to collect pre-restoration data on a number of meadows set to be restored in the coming years.

As we restore more meadows, we increase our impact to broader spatial scales and increase the potential for meadows to provide the important ecosystem functions that we all rely on.

Discover more by visiting the expedition site at: Restoring Meadows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

For questions or comments about this post, please contact us at

From Passion to Action: A Teen’s Experience in Little Cayman

By Jake Schenthal

In July 2016, 17-year-old Jake Schenthal joined the Earthwatch teen expedition: Helping Endangered Corals in the Cayman Islands. Jake has always had a passion for oceans and marine wildlife, but as he began to learn more about the devastating effects of climate change on marine ecosystems, he knew he was ready to make a difference.

Jake blog

For millions of years, coral reefs have flourished within our oceans – almost every animal, in some form, has a connection to coral reefs. Humans especially rely on reefs for food, medicine, tourism, biodiversity, and much more. However, reefs today are under threat from overfishing, unprecedented tourism, ocean acidification, coral bleaching, and climate change. Coral bleaching is a phenomenon that occurs when the seawater gets too warm, or the conditions are not favorable, so the zooxanthellae, algae essential to the coral, disperse from the coral until the conditions return to normal. Without these algae, corals lose their vivid colors and eventually die. Today, climate change is a prime cause of this phenomenon.

“Knowing the importance of reefs and that these values were under threat, I wanted to make a difference.”

I first encountered Earthwatch last year while I was searching for volunteer programs to do over the summer. As a volunteer at a local aquarium, I’ve always been interested in the oceans and the animals within them. While I was deciding between a couple Earthwatch expeditions, Helping Endangered Coral Reefs in the Cayman Islands really stood out to me, not only because it captured my interest in coral reefs, but it would allow me to make a difference in addressing a global crisis: climate change.

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This stunning image taken on Little Cayman was also the 3rd place winner of the 2016 Earthwatch photo contest. Credit: Jake Schenthal

Little Cayman is an island with a permanent population of less than 100. This island is also home to the Central Caribbean Marine Institute (CCMI), one of the most remote and yet most renowned, scientific research stations in the Caribbean. Little Cayman is the smallest of the three Cayman Islands, and because of its limited tourism and infrastructure, the coral reefs are among the most intact of any Caribbean island.

Every day proved to be a different experience. At times, conditions in the field were vigorous, with large swells and undercurrents, but that just added to the sense of adventure. The location was absolutely breathtaking. Snorkeling among the reefs helped to widen my understanding of the oceans, and at the same time, make me feel minuscule. For the first couple days of this incredible experience, we spent time at CCMI learning about the different types of coral that exist in the Caribbean as well as the ways in which they interact. After various workshops and presentations, it was time to do field research.

While challenging at times, the field research was arguably the most enlightening part of the trip. We did two research excursions per day, each to a different part of the island. For much of the research, we used a tape measure, clipboard, writing materials, and a color chart, which depicted healthy and unhealthy colors for coral. When in the water, we would lay a “transect” of the tape measure, and record the colors of any corals that were within that transect. This ensures that the data consistently measures all the corals in the area, not just the bleached ones.

“For years I had heard about the devastating effects of climate change, specifically coral bleaching. Supporting efforts to combat this firsthand was incredible.”

The second part of the research consisted of sponge surveying. Sponges, a natural part of coral reefs, can sometimes be competitive to corals and take over important coral territory. While there is nothing specifically that can be done, especially since it happens naturally, it is important to document the distribution of them, and to see if climate change is increasing their range.

While I could say the crystalline turquoise waters, or the deserted beaches, or the Caribbean vibes were my favorite aspects of the expedition, being able to work together with like-minded individuals easily tops the list. This combined with the research and beauty of the island created a beyond memorable trip. In the end, I’m glad to know that my time and research will help to combat coral bleaching, one of the devastating effects of climate change.

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Jake and his team in Little Cayman.

Guardians of the Forest

By Alix Morris and Dr. Stan Rullman

As darkness settles on the forest, a fleet of tiny owls emerges from the shadows – their soft-edged wings silent as they stalk their prey. Their faces are satellite discs, detecting the faintest rustle – a mouse scurrying amidst the leaf litter, the flutter of a moth’s wings. Little is known about the lives of small forest owls, but scientists are working to change that. From deep within aspen groves in northern Utah to the riparian canyon and coniferous forests in southeastern Arizona, Earthwatch teams are filling in knowledge gaps and testing strategies to protect these owl species from the effects of a changing climate as part of the expedition Following Forest Owls in the Western U.S.


Adult Northern Saw-whet Owl in Arizona

Of a Feather

The forest sage in our beloved children’s books, the reliable messenger for the wizards at Hogwarts, the sacred bird and symbol of Athena, goddess of wisdom, and the only species that can truly understand how many licks it takes to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop – owls have long served as a source of fascination for humans. Yet despite their cultural popularity, we have a limited understanding of the ecology and conservation status of many of these species, including some of the smallest owls in North America.

oleyar-credit-unknown-3In Southeast Arizona and Northern Utah, Earthwatch volunteers – led by biologist Dr. Dave Oleyar – are studying these unique birds as part of the expedition Following Forest Owls in the Western U.S. Teams of citizen scientists are helping to conserve these compact hunters of the night and their disappearing habitat – an effort that has become more urgent in the face of a changing climate.

Home, Sweet Nest Box

Scientists predict that within this century, aspen forests may all but disappear in many areas, including Northern Utah, where aspen groves provide a unique and essential habitat for small owl species such as Flammulated Owls, as well as other wildlife including songbirds, flying squirrels, and even moose.

Most owls seek out tree cavities, hollow openings such as those carved by woodpeckers, to shelter and nest in. But as these forests disappear, natural tree cavities may disappear along with them. What does that mean for the owls?

“Despite all of the incredible adaptations owls have to get by in a dark world, they’re now in a tough spot because they rely on this one thing – tree cavities. But we don’t know how that one thing will respond to climate change.” – Dr. Dave Oleyar

To address this challenge, researchers have begun to introduce nest boxes that could replace natural tree cavities and help to keep the populations afloat. While this strategy has been effective in Utah, where Flammulated Owls and Saw-whet Owls use the nest boxes regularly, in other regions, the boxes remain empty.

Why does this strategy work in one location for a species, but not in others? Perhaps it has to do with the availability of natural cavities in the region or even the way the boxes themselves are placed.

One thing is clear: Earthwatch needs your help to better understand natural cavity dynamics and why nest box usage in Utah has been more common than in other locations. This knowledge will help managers to protect and promote suitable habitat for small forest owls across their ranges.

Islands in the Sky

Rising up out of the arid Sonoran Desert in Southeast Arizona is an ecologically fascinating archipelago of mountains – the location of Earthwatch’s second research site. These “sky islands” are home to a unique combination of species of plants and animals from both the north and south. This stunning visual landscape is exceeded only by the rich and diverse acoustical soundscape, and is one of Earthwatch Research Director Dr. Stan Rullman’s favorite ways to capture and understand the amazing diversity of life living within these mountains. This transition zone harbors one of the richest bird communities in North America, with around 375 species recorded in the Chiricahua Range alone.


Earthwatch research site in Southeast Arizona

As an owl researcher himself, Stan celebrates this place as one of the best places in North America to study an entire community of owls, from the three smallest species on the continent (Elf, Flammulated, and Northern Pygmy Owls) to the heaviest owl on the continent – the female Great Horned Owl.

Distinguishing the hoots from the toots is where Stan and Dave’s ears kick into high gear, always scanning the ambient soundscapes for the often subtle but sometimes jarring calls of some of the rarest birds on U.S. soil.


Elf Owl in a Tree Cavity

In this unique landscape, Earthwatch teams are mapping tree cavities, surveying owl species, and assessing the need to augment the landscape with  the same nest boxes that have been so effective in Utah. The question is: will they work? But perhaps the bigger question is: are they needed? During the first year of research, volunteers found the canyons of the Chiricahua Mountains to have an abundance of tree cavities, primarily in the sycamores that line the canyon streams. And in many of those cavities were nesting Elf Owls and Whiskered Screech-Owls. Whiskered Screeches are so abundant in the lower canyons, in fact, that they may be pushing the Flammulated Owls higher up the mountain slopes, prompting new questions about how a changing climate might affect both of these players in this “find-the-cavity” survival game.

Dave’s Motivating Force: Earthwatch Volunteers

Growing up in eastern Texas, Dave knew every single tree cavity in his childhood neighborhood that harbored nesting Eastern Screech-Owls. Dave’s Masters research focused on how Flammulated Owls adapt to changing land use patterns – specifically the rapid buildup of infrastructure in advance of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Snow Basin, Utah.


Dr. Dave Oleyar

After completing his PhD, Dave joined HawkWatch International as Senior Scientist. In partnering with Earthwatch, Dave is able to extend his long-term monitoring of Flammulated Owls in Snow Basin with colleague and Earthwatch Field Team Leader Dr. Markus Mika of the University of Wisconsin, LaCrosse, and expand his research to Southeast Arizona, where the drivers of potential changes are very different than northern Utah. Engaging members of the public in his work is critical to the success of his research.

“I’ve done a lot of different research projects and you work a whole lot and you spin your wheels and if you’re lucky you put out a paper or two about it. And if you’re lucky, those papers are read by maybe 50 scientists, or cited and used. And that’s impactful and I wouldn’t diminish the importance of that at all. But to have 56 people who came and spent time with us this summer who now appreciate climate change, small owls, and cavity nesters – and how these cavity nesters rely on cavities and what’s involved there – that is impact on a very different level.

To know that these folks now consider these processes when they engage with the natural world, and that they’re going to share that message with their families and social circles – that’s the biggest impact this project is going to have. No matter how many papers we churn out. – Dr. Dave Oleyar

To learn more about this research in Arizona and Utah, visit our website: Following Forest Owls in the Western U.S.

Please contact us at with any questions or comments about this post.

In Defense of Climate Science in an Era of Alternative Facts: Q&A with Dr. Steve Mamet

On the Earthwatch project Climate Change in the Mackenzie Mountains, Dr. Steve Mamet has been monitoring the effects of climate change in the Arctic where ecological responses are expected to be greatest. Steve and his predecessors have been collecting data in the area since 1990. After nearly 30 years of conducting research in the area, recent funding cuts mean the project is now at risk. Steve explains why each year of monitoring is crucial and why Earthwatch volunteers are so important to this effort. Find out how you can help to support this project by contacting us at


Q&A with Dr. Steve Mamet

Earthwatch: You are in your eleventh year of studying in the Mackenzie Mountains, but research and monitoring has been occurring since the early 1970s. What is the value in having this long-term data?

Steve Mamet: One of the most important reasons in my mind is that climate is something that changes over a number of decades. And because of that, we couldn’t go up there just one year and measure thaw depth and be able to say much about how permafrost, for example, is changing. You need to have a longer record to be able to tease out some of these changes that are ongoing. Without long-term environmental monitoring, you’re not going to be able to record some of the changes that are ongoing. Not only that, you wouldn’t have the high-quality data to inform your modeling to make accurate predictions for the future.

EW: What is the significance of the loss of one year of data?

SM: We’ve seen that some of these changes – these really dramatic changes that we have seen in the last five years – can occur over a year or two. So it’s almost like you’ve got your camera set up and you’re waiting for that shot where the bear emerges from its den from hibernation and you decide to go grab a coffee and you come back and you realize you’ve missed it. So even though you’ve put in all that time and maybe gotten some good shots in the meantime, you didn’t really get the money shot.

EW: Right. So was that coffee worth it in the end? Was it even a good cup of coffee?

SM: It was probably terrible.


Dr. Steve Mamet working with Earthwatch volunteers on the expedition Climate Change in the Mackenzie Mountains.

EW: Set the scene for us in this remote region in the Mackenzie Mountains. What is it like working in this region of the Arctic?

SM: So I guess I have to put myself back in my younger shoes from when I first went up back in 2006 and I’m seeing this area for the first time. So first, you follow this old World War II road, which is in terrible condition – huge holes and rivers have washed away bridges and that sort of thing. But it’s almost like a step back in time. There’s not a lot of trees around, and you can see old oil barrels from the 1940s just left where tmamet-credit-shirley-cusak-19hey fell basically 70 years ago. In other places, you can see these old trucks that broke down, and then they got pilfered for parts to fix another truck, and then that truck broke down and got pilfered, so there’s these old World War II-era vehicles scattered around the area. It’s an interesting juxtaposition between this very unspoiled, untouched, beautiful area – where you can see glaciers on some mountains – to these scattered mamet-credit-shirley-cusak-46disturbances from the 1940s when they were trying to get oil from Western Canada to the coast in Alaska.

EW:  Do you often see wildlife there as well?

SM: I don’t think I’ve ever gone up and not seen wildlife. There’s a fair number of caribou up there. Though, we don’t see as many as we did even 10 years ago, I think partially because of climate change, but also the added pressure of hunting. But that gloomy part aside, I’ve seen black bears up there, grizzly bears. You see a lot of ptarmigan. There’s great fishing. You’ve got a number of different trout species you can catch. There are Gyrfalcons; I’ve seen eagles up there; I’ve seen a number of wolves. With the Earthwatchers, we’re up there for 10 days – you’re definitely going to see some wildlife and probably some stuff you might not have seen before.

EW: Why are we seeing the greatest signs of climate change in this region? You would think that in a colder area, signs would be slower to show.

SM: I hear the Arctic referred to a lot as the “canary in the coalmine.” In the Arctic, you’ve got this massive ice sheet or snowpack, so it’s almost like there’s more of a potential for change. So if you warm it by a few degrees, you get retreating sea ice and then you have less of this light-colored ice that’s going to reflect incoming solar radiation. And that’s replaced with this dark water that absorbs a lot of the incoming sun and then converts it to heat, and then more ice melts, which means more heating. So there is a greater potential for feedbacks in this region.

EW: What signs of climate change are you seeing?

SM: For part of my work, I look at tree growth at the very northern edge of where trees can grow, and I see – at least among some species – that trees are growing faster than they have in the last 400 years. I measure this by coring the tree, measuring the annual growth increments (the tree rings), and I can get a metric of growth throughout time. So if the trees are 400 years old, I’ve got a 400-year record of growth. And in recent years, for some species, I’ve seen a really dramatic increase in growth over the last 30 years or so where they’re growing much faster than they have. And when I look at the rest of the growth record, that growth is unprecedented since the 1600s.

EW: For someone who’s not familiar with this research, one might think “More trees, faster growing trees – that’s a good thing, right?” But it sounds like that’s not the case.

SM: Well, it’s all relative. If you’re a tree, that’s great. You can grow faster, you can have more vigor and that means produce more seeds, and get those seeds out and presumably move the tree line further north and further up slope. But if you’re tundra vegetation, that’s where you’re sort of getting outcompeted. You’ve colonized these areas and been there for hundreds of thousands of years and now you’re seeing this change where the trees are moving in.


EW: Why does it matter that the tree line is moving further north and taking over the vegetation area?

SM: For animal ecologists, you’re having traditional animal habitat move into other habitats, so there will be some repercussions there. And I think one of the big things from a climate perspective is that you’re changing the energy balance of the Earth. If the trees are growing much faster, it means that potentially more photosynthesis is occurring, which is drawing down carbon – a negative feedback. But there are more positive feedbacks, like when the temperature is getting warm, the trees become more stressed and start to respire: the reverse of photosynthesis where carbon is being emitted into the atmosphere along with water vapor, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Another issue is that light tundra vegetation, which is very reflective – it reflects around 70 percent of the incoming solar radiation – is being replaced with dark colored trees, which reflect around only 30 percent of the incoming solar radiation. If trees move further north, further upslope, more greenhouse gases are emitted, and more trees mean lower reflectivity or what we’d call albedo, which means more warming, which means more trees. So there’s a potential for a bit of a runaway effect there.

EW: What can the average person do today to help fight climate change?

SM: That’s a question I get asked a lot actually, and it’s one I have been thinking about a lot more the last few years. I feel there are two big things: The first is to become more informed. If you read a piece in the paper about climate change, see if you can access the article online to really understand firsthand what’s going on because the news has an obligation to sell stories and sometimes there’s a bit of a spin or a passing off a part as the whole. And I think by using that knowledge, you can start making more informed choices in your daily life.

“When you’re going to the polls to elect your government officials, look and see where they stand in terms of the environment.”

Start electing people that might be more interested in things like a carbon tax, because that seems to be the biggest one to really combat climate change on a broad scale is to have a change in the way that the government handles the environment. On a more day-to-day basis, you can just make small changes in your life. I’m a little bit of a nutter, I love to cycle year round. It’s currently minus 30 outside, but I’m still riding my bike. But, maybe in the summertime, you can walk or bike somewhere rather than taking your car; you can look at changing some of your appliances in your house to more high efficiency options. Or try not running the water when brushing your teeth. If we start doing things like this on a larger scale – I think we can make a huge difference.


To learn more about this research in the Arctic, check out our multimedia piece “Trees in the Tundra.” To join this project, visit our website: Climate Change in the Mackenzie Mountains.

Please contact us at with any questions or comments about this post.

This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity.

The Top 10 Earthwatch Expeditions of 2016 (according to our volunteers)!

What were the best expeditions of 2016 according to our volunteers? To find out, we tallied the evaluation scores submitted by each volunteer after his or her expedition—a measurement of training, safety, support, team dynamic, research contribution, overall satisfaction, and many other factors. Knowledgeable, tireless, and inspiring research staff; the ability and experience of interacting with and connecting with wildlife and ecosystems untouched by tourists; the knowledge that one person can make a difference in the world—these are just a few examples of volunteers’ expedition highlights.

  1. Uncovering the Mysteries of Ancient Colorado

ryan-credit-unknown-5-copyAround the globe, humans made a critical transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture. The Mesa Verde region in southwest Colorado is ideal for studying this transition. Volunteers are digging into the ancient past of this region to search for clues to the biggest shift in human history.

“This was my first expedition with Earthwatch. Getting to participate in an actual dig alongside professionals and sharing in their excitement of discovery is an experience I’ll long remember. I appreciated how the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center took good care of its Earthwatch volunteers, and also how they provided information and context prior to our field experience. At the end of my week, I was wishing I had signed up for the two-week program, which I am hoping I will be able to do next year!”Debra Berliner


  1. Amazon Riverboat Exploration

bodmer-maire-kirkland-196-copyAboard a riverboat deep in the heart of Peru’s flooded Amazon region, volunteers are helping to conserve the wildlife within this biodiverse area filled with pink river dolphins, many species of primates, macaws, caiman, giant river otters, and exotic fish.

“I’m an animal lover, and awakening to dolphins playing outside my door still gives me chills. I loved getting to meet the local people and see how they live. Traveling on the boats, taking our censuses, learning, looking at our amazing surroundings . . . There just aren’t words.”Deborah Fohringer


  1. Conserving Endangered Rhinos in South Africa

Rhino populations are in crises due to the high value of rhino horn combined with scott-credit-kristen-lalumiere-7-copy
widespread poaching. Volunteers are helping scientists in understanding the impact rhinos have on the environment to better help conserve and manage their populations in South Africa.

“If you’ve only seen animals in a zoo, prepare to have your mind blown!  In the rhino expedition, you enter the animals’ world and spend hours watching them in their own habitat, interacting with their babies or their pals…This expedition truly takes you to another world, a world that is refreshing to know still exists apart from our fast-paced human world.”
– Marcia Hanlon


  1. Trailing Penguins in Patagonia 

quintana-credit-agustina-gomez-laich-5-copyHow exactly do penguins forage for food at sea and how does this impact their young? Volunteers in Patagonia, Argentina, are helping researchers find the answers to these questions by tagging penguins and mapping the location of each nest in the colony.

“I learned a great deal about Magellanic Penguins, their nesting behaviors, and the threats that they face. I also gained a better perspective on the research being conducted in Argentina and the researchers conducting it. This was also my first introduction to Argentina, which made the expedition even more educational.”Doug DeNeve


  1. Costa Rican Sea Turtles

The leatherback sea turtle population in the Pacific, once the stronghold of the species, robinson-credit-nathan-robinson-30-copyhas declined by over 90% since 1980. To truly understand why this ancient species has declined so rapidly, volunteers are helping to observe and monitor nesting turtles, relocate eggs from nests in dangerous spots, and release hatchlings born in the hatchery into the ocean.

“This was one of the best experiences I’ve ever had working as a team on a project. The researchers and field staff made the volunteers feel as though we were actually contributing something to this research, and in some small ways, helping to protect and preserve the mighty leatherback!”
Kathryn Bonn


  1. Exploring an Active Volcano in Nicaragua 

The Masaya Valcano is persistently active – it erupts constantly, but it does not spew out rymer-volunteers-dscn7219-copymolten rock. Instead, it releases a steady plume of gas. To understand how the volcano’s plume shapes the surrounding environment, volunteers are studying pollinating insects, collecting plant, water and soil samples, and setting up scientific instruments to monitor the Masaya’s crater.

“Exploring an active volcano in Nicaragua was a once in a lifetime experience. Being able to work with scientists on their research, climb around on an active volcano, and then share what I learned with my K-8 students was an enriching and valuable experience. I was able to check in with my students daily and work with the scientists and other volunteers to answer their questions. I really believe this was a once in a lifetime and unique travel experience.”
Jennifer Fenner


  1. Unearthing Ancient History in Tuscany

megale-credit-unknown-59-copyThe ancient seaside city of Populonia was once a center of metalworking and trade. Volunteers are helping archaeologists reconstruct the complex past of this region to better understand the lives of the people who lived in the city between the 7th and 1st century BCE.

“[This expedition] made me more keen than ever to study anthropology and it was fascinating to see what life as an anthropologist involves. It also made me understand how archaeology, history, anthropology, and geology all have to link to fully understand the lives of people in ancient times.”Lucia Simmen


  1. Wildlife in the Changing Andorran Pyrenees

nita-losoponkul-daffodils-and-snowIn the high slopes of the Andorran Pyrenees, as in other mountain regions, climate change has already begun to alter the landscape. Some species are moving to higher latitudes and some have begun to decline. How have humans impacted this ecosystem? Volunteers are hiking through forests and meadows, studying alpine flora and surveying snowbed vegetation, to help researchers find out how animals are faring and how best to protect key species.

“Going on the Earthwatch expedition to Andorra gave me the chance to explore a region I never would have thought of when planning a normal vacation. If you have a sense of adventure and want to better understand a culture very different from your own, I strongly urge you to consider going on this expedition.”Ryan Filer


  1. Animals of Malawi in the Majete Wildlife Reserve

How can we best help African wildlife return to and thrive in their native habitat? leslie-credit-dr-allison-case-3-copyVolunteers are helping researchers gather the data they need to best manage the park by monitoring the many species in the reserve, conducting waterhole counts, and studying camera-trap images.

“Laying in my cot to sleep at night and seeing through the slit of my tent window – maybe 15 yards from my pillow – the tusks of elephants gleaming in the bright full moon as a herd passed through camp was a magical moment…Watching the parade of animals visit the waterhole over the course of an entire day was the stuff I had dreamed about since childhood. Yes, I could have had some similar experiences had I gone on a commercial safari, but this Earthwatch project allowed me the opportunity to be connected to the wildlife reserve and its inhabitants in as meaningful and authentic way as possible for a layperson.”
David Meyerson


  1. South African Penguins

SANYO DIGITAL CAMERANinety percent of the penguin population on Robben Island has disappeared over the past 100 years. The island lies in the middle of major shipping lanes, and the risk of oil spills to local seabirds has been well documented. Here, volunteers are working with researchers to monitor the health of this island environment and monitoring seabirds to help reduce the impact of the various threats to this fragile environment.

“Signing up for this project was the best thing I have done. It was such a privilege to be given the opportunity to live and work on an island that is full of history and inhabited by mostly birds and other wildlife. To be up close and personal with the penguins was such an awesome feeling.”Emi Estrada

Not All Trees Are Created Equal

By Lily Reynolds

The Earthwatch Urban Resiliency Program is a partnership between Earthwatch, scientists from UC Riverside, and community organizations to influence sustainable management of urban green space. The goal is to sustain cooler, more natural, and healthier environments by increasing urban tree cover in key communities beyond 25 percent. One important aspect of this is to make sure that the right trees are being planted in the right places. Earthwatch’s Lily Reynolds explains the goal of this research and why it is so critical. 

Photo: Lily Reynolds

Extreme weather, like extreme sports, is something best avoided unless one is prepared and willing to live on the edge. Yet cities around the world are trying to prepare for the effects of extreme weather. The urban environment of the future promises to be hotter, drier, and marked by more extreme weather events. One promising adaptation strategy for cities is to increase the number of healthy trees. Cities that plant and grow more trees stand to gain resilience in the face of climate change.

The beneficial ‘services’ that trees provide our cities include: cooling our homes and buildings with shade, filtering storm water, capturing carbon we produce, and also beautifying our neighborhoods.

However, not all trees are created equal and each species may be better suited for different urban environments and climates. Southern California is an especially interesting region for climate change research because the metropolitan areas span three ecosystem types and it’s the second largest metropolitan area in the United States. Because trees in urbanized centers (such as greater Los Angeles) are planted by the people who live there, it is important to get inside the psyche of residents to figure out why they choose to plant certain tree species instead of others.

Do you really know why you love that tree? ("The Giving Tree" by Shel Silverstein)

Do you really know why you love that tree? (“The Giving Tree” by Shel Silverstein)

A team of scientists, led by Dr. Meghan Avolio and including Dr. Darrel Jenerette from University California Riverside, studied the Los Angeles region with one particular question in mind: What drives peoples’ preferences for different species and how do these preferences align with the benefits offered by different tree species? For example, would people living in the hottest parts of Los Angeles be more likely to choose trees that offer shade? The researchers were also interested in whether traits like people’s age, gender, and income are related to their preferences of tree types. (Find the full article here.)

The researchers analyzed 1,029 household surveys across Riverside, Orange, and Los Angeles counties. The two most important attributes of trees that people consistently valued were whether trees provided shade and whether trees provided showy flowers (i.e. beauty). The scientists also found people living in hotter parts of Los Angeles (away from the coast) were more likely to value shade trees than those located in cooler regions. Moreover, people living in drier regions were more concerned about tree water use than people living in areas with higher rainfall.

Interestingly, whether the local environment was naturally treed or not also had an effect on people’s perceptions of the value of trees. People that were surrounded by desert were less likely to identify positive effects of trees in urban environments compared with people located in naturally forested areas. Several factors such as levels of education, wealth, gender and age all influenced people’s perceptions of trees. For example, older residents were more likely to be concerned with the cost of maintenance and women were more likely to associate trees with positive attributes in urban environments than men.


Thanks to this study, for the first time we understand that both the climate where people live and their socioeconomic attributes affect their opinions of different tree characteristics. Moreover, when combined with another study led by Avolio and her collaborators, we know that people’s preferences for trees often coincides with the trees in their yards. For example, people who identify shade trees as important live in neighborhoods with a greater proportion of shade trees. However, this is not true for all socioeconomic groups. While people from lower income neighborhoods have strong preferences for fruit-bearing trees, this preference does not translate into more fruit-bearing trees in their neighborhoods. This may be due to the restricted economics of this group that prevents them enacting their preference.

Avolio and her collaborators have shown how people are sensitive to what is happening in the environment where they live. This is a good sign when it comes to the future of urban forests, because it means that people consider tree attributes in the context of their neighborhood when planting trees.

Major metropolitan regions such as Los Angeles need to prepare for climate change and planting trees is one good strategy.

Since 2014, over 900 people have participated through Earthwatch in citizen science activities to collect vital information on trees from Santa Monica to Palm Springs. Everyone from elementary school kids to Master Gardeners, from architects to high tech engineers, from bankers to educators have rolled up their sleeves and helped collect data that is passed along to scientists at UC Riverside.

By actively engaging citizens in field research, we believe that not only will we be able to gather the information necessary to make better decisions about growing the right tree in the right place, but citizens will also be able to contribute and increase their awareness of what is necessary to do their part in helping to make Los Angeles more livable for all into the future.

Learn how you can get involved by visiting the Earthwatch Urban Resiliency Program’s website and stay up to date on the findings by checking out the Earthwatch Urban Resiliency Blog.

A Fellowship Ignites Passion For Environmental Protection

ignite-fernando-garciaBy Fernando Garcia, 2014 Ignite Fellow

In 2014, Fernando Garcia decided to take a chance on what would be a life changing opportunity. He applied for a two-week science fellowship to work alongside scientists in Northern Maine on the Earthwatch expedition Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park. Funded by The Durfee Foundation, the Ignite LA Student Science Awards aim to stimulate curiosity and interest in science and technology through hands-on research. Fernando found a renewed sense of passion and awareness for protecting our natural environment.

miller-rushing-credit-mike-mao-7-copyThree years have passed since I travelled to Maine for my Earthwatch Ignite experience, and I could not be any more thankful for those two weeks. During my junior year of high school, I was informed at the last moment of this opportunity by my counselor and decided to apply since it seemed like something I’d enjoy. I was able to receive two recommendations from my teachers and finish my application in time before the deadline, hoping for the best. When I got an email saying that I was chosen to participate, I was both excited and nervous.

I was excited at the opportunity to do research with a scientist in Maine, but nerves and worries were present since I had never before travelled out of state without my parents. Fortunately, the worry did not last long. Before we left for Maine, the Fellows all had the opportunity to meet each other, which made me much more relaxed as I got to know my team members and learned that they were not only smart, but friendly as well. My worry had changed into palpable excitement!

Once in Maine at the project site, Acadia National Park, I was amazed by the natural beauty of the setting surrounding us. We were right next to the coast and I could often hear the waves hit against the rocky shore. The days were enjoyably spent. In addition to conducting research, we would often go hiking down the mountains, and once we even travelled to Cadillac Mountain – the first place in the United States to receive sunlight each day. The research we conducted in Maine was both interesting and transformative. Although the results will take some years to be published, I think we all felt that we were making a difference.

In urban cities like Los Angeles, surrounded by concrete walls, it is often so easy to ignore the damage we are inadvertently causing to the environment.

The Earthwatch Ignite Program allowed me to see another world beyond Los Angeles and instilled in me an interest in protecting our natural environment. Not only was I able to create a bond with my other Earthwatch Ignite Fellows, but I also learned that I should take risks in my own life. Even though to others travelling alone might be common, for me that was far from the truth, and this experience made me much more conscious of my abilities.

Because of this experience, I applied to many colleges realizing that my experience in Maine would make me stand out. If I had the opportunity to go back and apply to the Ignite Fellowship again, I definitely would because this experience was one of the highlights of my high school career. I will never forget the mornings where I woke up literally in the middle of a national park and saw all that our planet has to offer. The generosity that organizations such as the Durfee Foundation provide to high school students is invaluable in giving individuals the ability to soar. The Earthwatch Ignite Program nurtures a love of STEM for so many of its past participants, including me, and I am proud to call myself an alumnus.

To learn more about the Ignite LA Student Science Awards, visit our website.

Plastic, Sea Beans, and Miles of Ocean


Never would I have imagined going to the Cayman Islands twice in one year. But when an opportunity presented itself to join an Earthwatch expedition in Little Cayman – I jumped at the chance to return to a place where I had vacationed just months ago. But this time, I would be experiencing something very different: a scientific lab of discovery on the expedition Helping Endangered Corals in the Cayman Islands.

As I took the final leg of my journey on a 10-seater plane, the pilot (in the role of flight attendant) turned around to tell us to buckle up. I was surprised to find myself feeling a bit nervous. Flying over the varying hues of blue, I didn’t know what to expect from my first Earthwatch expedition. I didn’t know who I would meet. I didn’t know if I had the skills required to partake in the scientific field work.

As we de-boarded the plane on the tiny 10-mile island of Little Cayman, and I was greeted by Central Caribbean Marine Institute (CCMI) staff, I realized that although I still didn’t know what to expect, it would undoubtedly be a special experience. In the days that followed, I got to know my teammates – a former oceanographer, a Shell engineer, a Department of Energy employee, and one of my coworkers from Earthwatch. I snorkeled more than I ever have before, I saw two nurse sharks, and I learned about many different species of coral and why they’re important. I learned about the importance of sea sponges and urchins, and why invasive species such as the lionfish and green iguana can wreak havoc on tiny island ecosystems.


And most importantly, I learned that I can make a difference, even if on a small scale.

Researchers around the world need helping hands to get their work accomplished. Here on Little Cayman, there are many coral reefs to survey, and left to one person, the work will take much too long to accomplish.

As we’ve seen for some time, our planet is on the brink of some serious climate-related changes. Having additional hands in the field helping to collect data can speed the process of scientific discovery and conservation along significantly. Here in Little Cayman, Earthwatch volunteers help to survey large areas of coral to assess the health of the reefs. This in turns feeds into larger datasets that can show trends in the marine ecosystem.

Mangroves on Little Cayman.

Mangroves on Little Cayman.

So what can we do to steer the ship away from the climate change iceberg?

Sign up for an Earthwatch expedition. Go into the field and support scientists as they study the effects climate change is having on plants, animals, and ecosystems around the world. Or maybe look to your own community to lend a hand. Start with leading a trash cleanup day.

One of the most memorable moments from the trip was helping clean the beach in front of a local restaurant here on Little Cayman. The five of us on the team collected 10 bags of trash, waste that’s coming to the island from all over the world.

Trash that has washed ashore Little Cayman.

Trash that has washed ashore Little Cayman.

Little Cayman is home to 150 to 200 people, depending on the time of year. Yet every day, bags and bags of garbage wash ashore.

Seeing the many discarded items on the beach today was a revelation for me. Despite my own eco-friendly nature, I have a carbon footprint, and this has widespread effects – effects I had previously never seen laid before me so clearly.

As I picked up the bottle caps, toothbrushes, shoes, contact lens cases, medicine vials, and various forms of plastic, I was reminded of a little factoid CCMI’s Scientific Educational Outreach and Dive Instructor Katie told us on our very first day. We had been gearing up to snorkel, and she bent down and picked up a smooth brown shiny rock-like object. She brought it over to us and informed us that it was a sea bean: the seed of a fruit that drifted out into the ocean, sometimes carried for hundreds of miles. She told us the one in her hand most likely came to the island from Central America.

While collecting trash from the shore, I uncovered some of these sea beans. Just like the waters carried the seeds of tropical trees to new lands, so did it bring the discarded objects of humans from miles and miles away.

Our actions matter. Whether we intend to or not, we are making a difference. What I was reminded of during my time in Little Cayman was that I have the power to choose whether my actions will help or hurt. We all do.

The Anthropocene and You: How Earthwatch citizen scientists can support environmental stewardship

By Dr. Steve Mamet

Drs. Steve Mamet and LeeAnn Fishback are the lead scientists on the Earthwatch expeditions Climate Change at the Arctic’s Edge and Climate Change in the Mackenzie Mountains. In celebration of International Day of Climate Action, Steve shares some of the many ways Earthwatch citizen scientists can give back and help to protect our environment – both during and after the expeditions.

steve-mamet_profileHuman activity is now the main cause of most environmental change. These changes have been so profound that scientists suggest we have entered a new geological epoch called the Anthropocene, as we can now observe the global presence of humans in the geologic record. The Anthropocene epoch is a glaring reminder of how we have changed the environment.

The good news is that we as a global community have the means to change the environment for the better.

Though you might feel like your lifestyle is insignificant compared to things like oil extraction or vehicle emissions, the choices we make in our day-to-day life — how we get around, what we eat, how we live — play a major role in slowing climate change. And we as a global community can make a tremendous impact on the environment. One example is the Montreal Protocol in the late 1980s—which started with the scientific discovery of substances that deplete the ozone layer and the “ozone hole” above Antarctica, and culminated with a widespread change in policy to reduce ozone-depleting halogenated hydrocarbons. And this action took place before widespread scientific consensus was established, highlighting the importance and effectiveness of international action on environmental issues.

We’ve changed climate and the environment in the past and it’s inevitable we’ll change it in the future. In contrast to our ancestors who cultivated widespread deforestation, pollution, and climatic change, with little knowledge of how those actions would influence future generations, we now know we have more choices than ever before.

A more sustainable global community starts with informed choices by individuals like you and comfort in the knowledge that we as a global community can make a difference.

As part of our Climate Change at the Arctic’s Edge and Climate Change in the Mackenzie Mountains Earthwatch expeditions, Earthwatch citizen scientists travel to northern research sites in the Northwest Territories and northern Manitoba in Canada to help scientists collect a great breadth and depth of data and maintain long-term environmental monitoring.


But what can citizen scientists do to respond to climate change once they’re back from the field? On your expeditions, you’ve already taken leaps and bounds during your expedition time on the first crucial step: getting informed. But here are a few other tips to help you along the way (see for more information).

  1. Get informed. A good place to start following the latest news about climate change is through a site on climate science by climate scientists including Michael Mann, Ray Bradley, and Gavin Schmidt.
  2. Get involved. Contact your political representatives and tell them you want immediate action on climate change. Remind them that reducing greenhouse gas emissions will also build healthier communities, spur economic innovation, and create new jobs. Look to join sustainable living organizations in your area (you can start here: And when you’re at the polls, vote for politicians who support effective climate policies.
  3. Increase your energy efficiency. You already switch off lights — what’s next? Change light bulbs to compact fluorescents or LEDs. Unplug electronics when not in use. Wash clothes in cold or warm (not hot) water. Dryers are energy intensive, so hang dry when you can. Install a programmable thermostat. Look for the Energy Star® label ( when buying new appliances. Home energy audits are cheaper than you think; book one today to find even more ways to save energy.
  4. Choose renewable power. Ask your utility companies and urge your elected representatives to switch to clean, renewable power, such as from wind farms. Consider adding solar panels to reduce your reliance on the energy grid.
  5. Eat wisely, including organic and locally grown foods. Avoid processed items that require a lot of energy to produce. Grow some of your own food. Eat low on the food chain — at least one meat-free meal a day — since 18 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions come from meat and dairy production. Become more familiar with your food and what it means to be able to eat pretty much anything. A great place to start is Michael Pollan’s book, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals.
  6. Reuse, reduce, recycle. It sounds like old maxim, but one of the easiest ways to reduce your carbon footprint is to buy less, reduce what you throw away, reuse what you can, and recycle the rest. Garbage buried in landfills produces methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Keep waste out of landfills by composting kitchen scraps and garden trimmings, and recycling paper, plastic, metal, and glass. Let store managers and manufacturers know you want products with minimal or recyclable packaging.
  7. Let broad-scale polluters pay. Carbon taxes make polluting activities more expensive and green solutions more affordable, allowing energy-efficient businesses and households to save money. They are one of the most effective ways to reduce a nation’s climate impact. Carbon taxes are often revenue-neutral, meaning higher taxes on carbon supplement lowering other taxes you pay. If your state or province doesn’t have a carbon tax, ask your elected representative to implement one.
  8. Fly less. Air travel leaves behind a huge carbon footprint. Before you book your next airline ticket, consider greener options such as buses or trains, or try vacationing closer to home. You can also stay in touch with people by videoconferencing, which saves time as well as travel and accommodation costs.
  9. Green your commute through public or active transport. Transportation causes about 25 per cent of Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions, so walk, cycle, or take transit whenever you can. You’ll save money and get into better shape! If you can’t go car-free, try carpooling or car sharing, and use the smallest, most fuel-efficient vehicle possible.


A Week Spent Restoring Sierra Nevada’s Meadows

Anna Woodroof in the meadows of Sierra Nevada.

Anna Woodroof

By Anna Woodroof, Earthwatch Program Delivery Assistant

The Sierra Nevada Mountains supply two-thirds of California’s water supply. Meadows in these mountains capture rain and snow, making water available throughout the year. Earthwatch Program Delivery Assistant Anna Woodroof spent time restoring and monitoring this ecosystem in order to better understand potential threats to water supply and biodiversity due to climate change on the expedition Restoring Meadows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

As an East Coaster, I find the landscapes of the West amazing, unlike anything we have at home. The cliffs and valleys seem to invoke a Disney-like magic like the backdrop of a movie set. I recently joined the Earthwatch expedition Restoring Meadows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where I worked in meadows at the elevation of some of the highest mountains on the East Coast, surrounded by even higher peaks. The expedition was a combination of challenging physical work, a huge sense of accomplishment, and periods of serenity where I was able to enjoy the vast landscape and reflect on all that I was seeing. I loved learning about the importance of the meadows for the community and for the greater California state.

Looking out across the Sierra to the Sierra ButtesReno, Nevada wasn’t the first place I would think to go for quick access to some of the most beautiful landscapes the United States has to offer. But my recent participation on this week-long Earthwatch expedition, in addition to two one-day programs in the Sierra Nevada meadows (which I describe below), changed that perception. Both projects included beautiful sunny weather and amazing vistas of mountains, massive trees, and golden valleys.

For the week-long expedition, my team participated in the scientific studies of meadows in the Yuba watershed. We worked alongside lead scientist Rachel Hutchinson, as well as other researchers from the South Yuba River Citizens League (SYRCL), to understand how human activities have altered the meadows on the Western-side of the Sierra Nevada and how these changes will impact their response to a changing climate.

Over the course of one week, we installed three groundwater-monitoring wells, collected data on stream water level flows, and identified meadow plant species by collecting several biomass samples. The research took place between long fascinating hikes through Tahoe National Forest with a passionate botanist and enthusiastic hydrologist ready to answer any questions we had. SYRCL is working to create a budget of the carbon released and sequestered in the particular meadows with the hopes of influencing policy with the findings.

The other projects I took part in were one-day events with researchers from the University of Nevada, Reno. This project series – called Sierra to Sea – also studies meadows, but on the Eastern-side of the Sierra Nevada, and strives to recruit locals whose communities will be directly impacted by the study to participate. The volunteers consisted of high school students, college undergraduates and the other community members who spent a Saturday or Sunday with the researchers in the field. We collected biomass samples, measured trees and sagebrush, and learned about the difference between wet and dry meadows when it comes to carbon sequestration. Even though the group volunteered together for one day, I got to know a lot about the people of the region through the local community members who participated.

Learning about the local water source and the science behind carbon sequestration in meadows made me think more about my own community and the processes taking place there. The researchers and community members participating rely on the water and the biodiversity of the meadows and have a personal perspective surrounding the issues. I think both groups learned a great deal from this experience and will take their newfound knowledge back to their everyday lives.

Student Ignites Path To Career In Science Through Fellowship Program

By Kiara Reed, 2014 Ignite Fellow

In 2014, Kiara Reed left her home in Los Angeles and traveled across the country to a remote corner of Maine to embark on a two-week science fellowship on the expedition Climate Change: Sea to Trees at Acadia National Park. Funded by The Durfee Foundation, the Ignite LA Student Science Awards aim to stimulate curiosity and interest in science and technology through hands-on research. Kiara immersed herself in the beauty of Acadia National Park and came away from the experience transformed and inspired to pursue a career in science. 

20160712_194408Before embarking on this program, I had never set foot on a national park reserve, let alone Acadia National Park – a 47,000-acre, pine tree-filled paradise off the coast of Maine. As a Los Angeles city dweller, I was in awe at the miles and miles of vast forestry and picturesque views from our peninsula to the surrounding islands. Along with enjoying the scenes, I was given explanations about the ecology of the region. Our chief scientist, Dr. John Cigliano, taught us about the overfishing of cod in the western Atlantic Basin and ocean acidification, our research topic.

As a team, my group and I tracked the biodiversity of organisms in tide pools, many of which have calcium carbonate shells, rendering them vulnerable to changes in pH levels in the water. We collected common periwinkle snails from the tide pool for further observation. Examining snail behavior and shell weights in the lab made me feel like a real field researcher, giving me insights otherwise unobtainable at my inner-city high school. I left the expedition with a newfound appreciation for nature and a more realistic view about what research is all about.

Common periwinkles on barnacles in Acadia National Park.

Common periwinkles on barnacles in Acadia National Park.

When the college exploration season came around, the impacts of this expedition became clear. My college counselor mandated that everyone apply to an out of state school. Having cherished my time in Maine, I decided to add Colby College to the list. One part of the application consisted of a personal statement. Here, I wrote about my Earthwatch experience and the value of citizen science, proposing that we can reverse human-caused environmental degradation with two things: optimism and collective effort.

I was accepted to the school as well as a six-week science program where I was able to research causes for the decline of eelgrass on Mount Desert Island, study the environmental chemistry of Maine lakes, and even investigate applications of green chemistry. By the end of this program, I found that contributing to an authentic research project made me feel capable and, at the same time, uncertain as each discovery posed more questions.

Earthwatch gave me the confidence and inspiration I needed to pursue a career in the sciences.

If I hadn’t participated in my Earthwatch expedition, I do not think I would have the confidence to attend a private college in Maine – which is on the opposite end of the country from my home state – or have the courage to become a scientist myself. As you may be able to tell, this program was likely a catalyst to my scientific endeavors. It helped me develop realistic expectations for a career in the sciences and took me out of the city to inspire me with the beauty of biology.

Applications are still being accepted for 2017 Ignite Fellowships. To learn more, visit our website.

How Bees And ‘Chili Grenades’ Can Prevent Human-Elephant Conflict

By Connor Spach, Earthwatch Communications Intern

Elephants seen during the expedition Elephants and Sustainable Agriculture in KenyaA strobe light, a roman candle, and a “chili grenade” (which, for those of you who are unfamiliar with the term, is a condom filled with chili powder, small rocks, and a firecracker) – these “repellents” might be methods to save not only your crops, but an elephant’s life, according to research being conducted throughout Africa and Asia. One such research study is Earthwatch’s new expedition: Elephants and Sustainable Agriculture in Kenya, led by Dr. Bruce Schulte.

Bruce has spent over 20 years working with elephants, and beginning in 2017, he will launch this new Earthwatch project, in part to help reduce human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Kenya. Elephants have come into conflict with farmers by eating or damaging crops as farms expand and elephant habitat dwindles.

Another important focus of the study will be on land conservation by implementing the latest methods in sustainable agriculture and forestry. Climate change has resulted in extreme weather events, threatening agriculture production in sub-Saharan Africa. The project aims to find ways around these agriculture impediments by using climate-smart agriculture – a method that reduces pesticide and herbicide use and supports crops that are resistant to climate change while improving soil, land, and water management systems. The soil in this region lacks nutrients and water, and can only sustain agricultural life for a brief period causing farmers to travel deeper into the bush for healthier soil.

An African elephant in Kenya.As farmers shift their agriculture practices into elephant habitat, HEC has increased. Elephants are crucial to the maintenance of their environments by regenerating forests through seed dispersal and trail generation, as well as serving as an important source economically for African tourism. To better protect this species while supporting local farmers and their livelihoods, researchers are testing the effect of repellents on the elephants.

“One of the problems with elephants is that because they are highly intelligent, social, and long-lived animals, they have the ability to problem solve and retain knowledge,” Bruce said. “Through this project, a multifaceted solution will be found.”

Bruce has been experimenting with a number of natural repellents such as strobe lights or natural sound projection ranging from lions roaring to helicopters flying overhead. Although because of their natural intelligence, elephants have learned these repellents have no negative effect on their well-being and begin to ignore them after several interactions. Other repellents used are beehive fences and chili grenades, which remain effective because the elephant will associate being stung or inhaling a foul scent when crossing onto farms.

Aluminum strip fences are another method of repelling elephants from raiding crops.

Aluminum strip fences are another method of repelling elephants from raiding crops.

On average, elephants destroy 10 to 15 percent of a crop yield in one raid, and sometimes as much as 100 percent. By experimenting with repellents along with agricultural practices, Bruce’s project will reduce HEC and work to develop agricultural models alongside local and national officials to broaden conservation practices that will benefit this terrain. If successful, this will ensure stable agriculture and allow humans and elephants to live harmoniously.

“The goal is to make this bigger than any one individual, or group,” Bruce said. “The idea is to establish enough connections with the local people – all the way up to the Kenyan government – to get these practices to become sustainable.”

The Story of How a Painter and Wolf Expert Became Earthwatch’s Chief Scientist: Dr. Cristina Eisenberg

By Connor Spach, Earthwatch Communications Intern

Beginning at a young age, Dr. Cristina Eisenberg has had a passion for science, describing herself as the nerdy kid in second grade who spent her time in the library reading every book on wildlife, anthropology, archeology, and paleontology that she could get her hands on.

Dr. Cristina Eisenberg. (Courtesy Trevor Angel)

Dr. Cristina Eisenberg. (Courtesy Trevor Angel)

“I was fascinated by it,” Cristina said. “But like many people, I got sidetracked away from science.”

Today, Cristina is Earthwatch’s Chief Scientist – overseeing a portfolio of more than 50 research studies around the world, including her own, which focuses on the relationship between fire and wolves in the Canadian Rockies. Her research is playing a crucial role in restoring the once extensive grasslands of Waterton Lakes National Park back to their pre Euro-American settings.

In 1999, with a bachelor’s degree in painting, Cristina relocated to northwest Montana along the continental divide. A naturalist and stay-at-home mom at the time, she learned to track animals that passed through her land – a system developed to ensure her children’s safety. On a cool and misty July morning, as she was working outside in her garden, Cristina watched as a deer burst from the woods into the meadow in front of her home with two wolves in pursuit.

“It ran towards us and came within about 20 feet of us and right behind it was a pair of wolves, a grey one and a black one,” Cristina said. “Later I learned that it was an alpha male and female pair. They had started a pack.”

Cristina determined these wolves were traveling down from Canada and recolonizing the landscape, which was located just 400 miles from Yellowstone National Park.

This rare sighting sparked her interests and she began tracking wolves for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a volunteer basis. She was a citizen scientist in action. In 2003, she returned to school and obtained her master’s in conservation biology and environmental writing from Prescott University. Cristina’s first book, The Wolf’s Tooth, was based on her master’s thesis. She then went on to pursue two doctorates in wildlife and forestry at Oregon State University.

While completing her doctorate, Cristina hired interns with field experience to support her research, several of whom had volunteered on Earthwatch expeditions. While she had heard of Earthwatch in the past, this was her first real exposure to the organization.

But her ties to Earthwatch were only just beginning. In 2010, she gave a talk on Bainbridge Island, Washington, where she met Earthwatch’s Research Director Dr. Stan Rullman. Three years later, she spoke again at a fundraiser in Seattle about the relationship with her volunteers and their importance in her research, which Stan also attended. He recognized her passion for environmental science and for citizen science, and suggested she write a proposal for an Earthwatch research project. In 2015, Cristina launched her first Earthwatch expedition: Tracking Fire and Wolves through the Canadian Rockies.

“The more we learn, the more we realize what we don’t know.” – Cristina Eisenberg

During the Westward expansion, large carnivorous predators were wiped out to eliminate human settlement interactions as well as increase the availability of game. These actions resulted in a boom in herbivore populations. At the same time, fire was suppressed in order to protect forest resources and human interests. Funded by Parks Canada, Earthwatch, the Kainai First Nation, and the AGL Foundation, Cristina’s research examines the effects that these conditions have had on the species within Waterton Lakes National Park, a biodiversity hotspot located in Alberta, Canada. With the natural recolonization of wolves and use of large prescribed fires, the area has experienced drastic change.

Cristina and her team in the field in the fire site. (Courtesy Donna Fleury)

Cristina and her team in the field in the fire site. (Courtesy Donna Fleury)

In September of 2014, she was hired as Earthwatch’s Lead Scientist, and more recently assumed the role of Chief Scientist. With more than 10 years of field experience under her belt, Cristina is a scientist who is “attached to the natural world.” She has had some exciting experiences in the field, including a memorable 24-hour period in May pulling transect tape in a blizzard as wolves silently hunted behind her, or watching as an elusive alpha female wolf devoured a fully grown elk. Her work more recently includes working alongside the aboriginal Kainai Tribe, where she is supporting efforts to update their timberland management plan to protect their sacred lands.

While Cristina is now stationed at Earthwatch’s headquarters in Boston, each May she returns to the field with a group of volunteers, continuing the conservation of one of the most diverse ecosystems in North America. Her research has and will continue to unfold the ecological mysteries of this area, while posing new questions for years to come.

On the Move in Malawi: A Conservation Success Story

By Alix Morris

Majete Wildlife Reserve, Malawi. A helicopter whirs above the savanna as the pilot “herds” a family of zebras towards a nearby funnel-shaped structure created by the park staff. As thZebra making their way through the final gate prior to loadinge zebras rush into the tunnel, a reserve manager quickly closes a sliding plastic curtain behind them. The animals continue to push forward as additional sliding curtains close one by one behind them, edging them towards a loading ramp. The zebras climb up the ramp and pack into a large transport container hitched to a truck, completing the first stage of an epic, 500 kilometer journey to their new home.


Zebra loaded up

A family of zebras from Majete is loaded into a transport truck.

A Park in Crisis

Not long ago, Malawi’s Majete Wildlife Reserve was once devoid of, well, wildlife. Poaching, logging, and charcoal burning were rampant, destroying the region’s iconic animals and their habitat. By the mid-1980s, elephants had been poached to extinction, along with zebras, rhinos, hartebeest, and many other species. Only a few hippos and crocodiles remained.

But in 2003, everything changed. African Parks, a non-profit organization, launched a partnership with the Malawian government and local communities to return Majete to what it once was – a wildlife haven. Their idea was to “re-stock” the park with 14 species of animals that had once lived there.

It was a pioneering effort. But no one knew if it would work.

Earthwatch on the Scene

Since 2013, Earthwatch volunteers have joined Dr. Alison Leslie of Stellenbosch University and the Majete Wildlife Research Programme to support critical research efforts on the ground through the expedition Animals of Malawi in the Majete Wildlife Reserve.  The research team is investigating the ecology of many of the reintroduced species, such as diet, behavior, home range, and territory establishment, all of which will contribute to a wildlife management plan for the reserve.

Leslie - credit Dr. Allison Leslie (16)

Earthwatch volunteers record wildlife observations in Majete.

A Conservation Success Story

Today, 13 years after the initial conservation efforts, 2,500 elephants, buffalos, waterbuck, nyala, hartebeest, zebras – even critically endangered black rhinos – have been reintroduced in the reserve. And many species are doing so well that, to prevent destruction of vegetation in the park, some of the animals are currently being re-located to other protected reserves in Malawi where populations are struggling.

And so begins a massive translocation effort – a human-assisted wildlife migration from Majete in southern Malawi to Nkhotakota Wildlife Reserve in the northern part of the country (a journey of approximately 500 kilometers). The massive effort began this month and will continue into 2017.

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“Majete’s success story is a shining example of conservation in practice, incorporating a combination of scientific research, management, law enforcement, and community participation.” – Dr. Alison Leslie

In 2003, African Parks and their partners had a dream for Majete Wildlife Reserve, and 13 years later, that dream has come true, said Alison.

Find out more about this Earthwatch research expedition in Malawi on our website and discover how you can be a part of this pioneering conservation effort.


Earthwatch: ‘An experience that will always be a part of you.’

By Jan Boal

Author Jan Boal believes in tuning oneself in to the signs from the universe. Her book, “Safari for the Soul,” explores her journey in finally heeding these signs and taking a leap of faith in herself, deciding to travel the world solo. During her year of self-discovery, she volunteered on three Earthwatch expeditions and was profoundly changed.

Author Jan Boal during an Earthwatch expedition.

Author Jan Boal during an Earthwatch expedition.

“In every walk with nature one receives far more than he seeks.” — John Muir

I recently had the absolute pleasure of meeting the staff of Earthwatch Institute at their Boston Headquarters. Not only was I warmed by their sincerity, but I was grateful for their vision and dedication in pursuit of caring for our planet.

In 2011, I volunteered on three expeditions, Blazing the Biodiversity Trail in Brazil, Dolphins of Greece, and Saving Kenya’s Black Rhinos. I was 52 at the time, single and following my calling. I knew it would be like when I went off to college: Anticipation of what was to come, knowing I would be different when I returned, and anxious for all those same reasons along with traveling alone to these far away countries. This was one of the best decisions I have ever made for myself.

Like college and getting an education, it is the same when venturing off with Earthwatch — an education, an experience that will always be a part of you, a broadening of yourself, like a breath of fresh air, a new you. Be prepared that volunteering on an expedition is quite holistic and all-encompassing. You will learn about the animal/environment you signed up for as well as the culture of this environment and its impact and struggles dealing with whatever threatened issue is involved.


Black rhinos as seen by Jan Boal on the expedition Saving Kenya's Black Rhinos.

You will experience being around a type of passion we seldom experience, usually only witnessing it in the movies. I am talking about the directors of the sites — these scientists who eat, sleep, and breathe in pursuit of their cause — who do it with such dedication and enthusiasm that once you experience this it will unlock something within yourself.

Admiration and unlimited gratitude is what I felt when I went to sleep each night after returning from my expeditions. I knew these scientists were continuing their calling, their mission in gathering data and saving a part of our world — day, after day, after day, after day.

The hands-on experience, learning something new and foreign, being challenged by this — by the travel, unfamiliar ways, and culture — working on a volunteer team consisting of such a variety of people unknown to you, realization of situation, the direness and frustration of this environmental issue, and the pride and joy you will experience is profound and life changing.

I encourage you to trust in this process and have an experience, a journey of a lifetime. You won’t regret it! Be a piece of the puzzle that helps to solve the problem and save our home we call Earth.

Investigating Threats to Chimps in Uganda

By Earthwatch Expedition Advisor Dustin Colson and Field Team Leader Geoffrey Muhanguzi

As food supplies in Uganda’s Budongo Forest Reserve decline, chimpanzees and other primate species that call it home are increasingly raiding nearby farms, where they come into conflict with the farmers who depend on these crops. Earthwatch teams are investigating what is causing the mysterious decline in fruiting tree productivity in this gently rolling forest to ensure that conservation measures to support forest primates and local communities are put in place. Earthwatch Expedition Advisor Dustin Colson and Field Team Leader Geoffrey Muhanguzi share what it’s like to volunteer on Investigating Threats to Chimps in Uganda and explain the need for ongoing support.

Budongo Conservation Field Station, Uganda

A Chimp Encounter in Budongo
-Dustin Colson, Earthwatch Expedition Advisor

I wake with a start from an unfamiliar sound. The room is filled with hazy light streaming through a mosquito net.

“Where am I?” I wonder. I hear the sound again, the pant-hooting of a group of chimps just outside my window. “Ah, yes. Budongo.”

I’m in the midst of a lively biodiverse environment, the Budongo Forest Reserve — the jewel of northwestern Uganda. The chimps are calling to each other using sounds that start low and build to a climax of shrill screeches. I will have to move quickly if I’m to catch a glimpse of them. I throw on my clothes, upend my boots to check for spiders before slipping them on, and open the door to face the forest’s edge.

I’m not disappointed. A group of Sonso chimps are padding along the well-worn path leading into the lantana, their favorite mid-morning hang out spot. Not more than 20 feet ahead of me, a mother named Oakland and her unnamed infant clinging to her back pause, checking to see if the way is clear. Most adults will ignore you, but the baby chimp glances over her shoulder and makes eye contact with me. Perhaps I’m the first human she’s ever seen.

Oakland with her infant.

Oakland with her infant in the Budongo Forest Reserve.

As my arms rise to bring the camera closer to my face, as does the hair on the back of my neck. My mind and body are finally awakening to the realization that I am witnessing something very few people get to experience in a lifetime. I count myself lucky to be an Earthwatch volunteer stationed at the Budongo Conservation Field Station and snap a picture.

As much as these chimps left an impression on my life, it was good to know that volunteering in Budongo was positively changing their lives as well. Chimpanzees are an endangered species facing numerous anthropogenic threats. The 600 remaining chimps in the Budongo Forest Reserve are threatened by poaching, habitat fragmentation, and an unexplained reduction in the abundance of fruiting trees. Earthwatch scientist Dr. Fred Babweteera and his team of field assistants are conducting a long-term study to determine the underlying causes of the reduction in fruiting trees, while simultaneously providing relief from the threat of poachers and deforestation.

Earthwatch volunteers contribute to the research effort by walking forest transects collecting tree phenology data, conducting pollinator surveys, and observing monkey and chimpanzee foraging behavior. The expedition contribution cost also ensures that the conservation effort is well-funded and well-manned. The veterinary program, the snare patrol team, the transect cutters, and the farmer startup program all rely on a steady stream of charitable contributions from Earthwatch volunteers. As an Earthwatch employee I am aware that all Earthwatch projects work to create a sustainable environment, yet experiencing these programs first-hand was eye-opening.

Babweteera -Credit Dustin Colson9 (3) copy

The Importance of Volunteer Support
-Geoffrey Muhanguzi, Field Team Leader and Budongo Conservation Field Station’s Manager

While in the Budongo Forest Reserve, the volunteer researchers will help the Budongo Conservation Field Station (BCFS) team to investigate the threats to the survival of chimpanzees, including the changes in tree fruiting and flowering, as well as the abundance and distribution of pollinating insects. The team will explore how primates and other wild animals have coped with the changes in flowering and fruiting patterns. Do these animals change their foraging time and place? Do they raid peoples’ crops more often? This information will be useful in developing wildlife conservation strategies, such as human-wildlife conflict management.

Other threats to chimpanzee survival include illegal hunting. Guided by the BCFS snare patrol team, volunteers will participate in looking out for illegal traps (snares) placed in the reserve. Having detected the threats inside the reserve and the potential effects in the Budongo landscape, BCFS has piloted buffer crops with the potential for reducing crop-raiding incidences. Volunteers will conduct interviews with local farmers to assess the potential of buffer crops in reducing crop raids, mitigating human-wildlife conflict with the possibility of increasing chimpanzee survival close to cultivated fields.

We are always grateful for extra hands and eyes in collecting data. We thank those that intend to volunteer and those who have joined us in Budongo in the past.


When I Was 17, My Life Changed.

By Taormina Lepore, Earthwatch Student Fellow

At age 17, Taormina Lepore boarded a plane for the very first time on her way to an archaeological excavation as an Earthwatch student fellow, funded by the Durfee Foundation. The two weeks she spent on the dig in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, changed her future career path.

Student fellow Taormina Lepore in 2001 during the Jackson Hole Bison expedition.

Student fellow Taormina Lepore in 2001 during the Jackson Hole Bison expedition.

When I was 17 years old, my life changed.

My eyes were opened to a world outside my comfort zone, a world of science, field work, and new horizons.

When I was 17 years old, I stepped onboard a plane.

It was the first time I’d been on a plane by myself, and this time the flying “aluminum can with wings” would take me from my everyday high school existence in suburban Boston, all the way to an empty, expansive field in the breathtakingly beautiful National Elk Refuge near Jackson, Wyoming. I would be there for two weeks, field camping and working with strangers who would become like family.

It was exhilarating and terrifying and intellectually exciting, all at the same time.


When I was 17 years old, I excavated the ancient past.

Without this formative experience, I might not have had the courage to pursue my dreams and goals as a scientist and educator. It started with a few brushes and a few meter-by-meter square plots of archaeological excavation at an ancient midden site, where bison bone fragments and flakes of caramel quartzite lay just beneath the moist soil surface.

When I was 17 years old, I went on an Earthwatch expedition.

And this archaeological expedition kick-started a lifelong passion for experiential education. Thanks to an Earthwatch student fellowship, I was able to test my courage, break out of the norm, and fuel an endless desire to travel, to seek new experiences, and learn about the natural world. I’m almost 32 now, and in the time since my Earthwatch expedition, I’ve gone on to work as a museum educator around the country, as a research paleontologist in graduate school, and as a high school science educator.


With each experience, I find myself referring back to that Earthwatch experience as the baseline for stretching my boundaries.

Before Earthwatch, being actively involved in science was just an idea, and a far-away idea at that. Earthwatch made the idea a reality. I became a lifelong advocate for citizen science, high school field experiences, and outdoor education. And I became a scientist, studying paleoecology through dinosaur tracks and fossilized droppings known as coprolites.

In a recent job as a consultant paleontologist, I regularly visited construction sites to monitor for fossil resources.

I kept my Earthwatch research team sweatshirt with me every day, as a reminder of how one field experience can make an impact on a young student’s life, and allow her to be consistently mindful of how citizen science can change the world.

I think about Earthwatch whenever I’m in the field.

As an educator, I help my students reach past their own comfort zones, and branch out in their scientific interests. I want them to motivate themselves and find encouragement for their passions, and take the leap to always ask questions, to go camping, to try field science. From conservation, to paleontology and archaeology, to our global context as human beings, field work and citizen science are the underpinnings of a transformative education. It certainly transformed me in ways I’m still discovering, even today. I think about Earthwatch when I remind my students that they can do these same kinds of things. Scientific field work is within their reach.

If every student could be given the same opportunity I had to join an Earthwatch expedition, I really believe we would have a more compassionate, more scientifically literate, and more passionate world. I’m grateful every day for being given the chance to change my life and ignite my scientific passion with Earthwatch.

Taormina Lepore in the field in 2015.

Taormina Lepore in the field in 2015.

Applications are now open for our 2017 student fellowships. To learn more, visit our website

The Vigilant Fight to Save South Africa’s Rhinos

Contributions by Earthwatch scientists, volunteers, and staff: (in order of appearance) Lynne MacTavish, Dr. Stan Rullman, Cassandra Nichols, Kristen Lalumiere, Phoebe Hart

Widespread poaching is decimating rhino populations. The situation is dire: if poaching continues at its current rate, rhinos may become extinct within the next 20 years. In the heart of South Africa, which is home to three-quarters of the world’s rhino population, Earthwatch teams are engaged in one of the first studies to look at the services rhinos provide to their larger ecosystem, as well as the effects of dehorning on rhino behavior. Five individuals with close ties to this project share their unique perspectives: Lynne MacTavish, co-Principal Investigator for the Earthwatch expedition Conserving Endangered Rhinos in South Africa; Dr. Stan Rullman, Earthwatch Research Director; Cassandra Nichols, Earthwatch Australia CEO; Kristen Lalumiere, field crew lead on the Earthwatch expedition Saving Joshua Tree’s Desert Species; and Phoebe Hart, first-time volunteer on the rhino expedition.

Four rhinos on a preserve in South Africa. (Courtesy of volunteer Alex Kallend)

A Partner in the Fight

–Lynne MacTavish, Earthwatch scientist for the expedition Conserving Endangered Rhinos in South Africa

Earthwatch heard of our plight with rhino poaching and our desperate attempt to try and save our surviving herd of rhino. They leapt into action and launched the Conserving Endangered Rhinos in South Africa project. Over the past five months, four teams have visited the wildlife reserve and assisted us in collecting urgently needed data to access the impacts of dehorning rhinos, and to evaluate the importance of rhino to a savannah ecosystem. In a short space of time, huge amounts of data have been collected which is invaluable to the scientists as they race against time to provide scientific evidence to support management decisions in a bid to try and save the rhino from extinction.

From a reserve management point of view, the teams have given us so much moral support. Before the project began, we felt that we were fighting this war on our own. We now feel that we have supporters from all over the world, which has given us renewed energy and hope to carry on fighting. Some of the highlights for me personally as a Principal Investigator have been watching the volunteers fall in love with the rhino and see them recognize the different characters in each and every animal. I have received messages asking “Has Willis joined up with his family?” and “Has Brutus been accepted by the rest of the herd?” It has been inspiring to see how passionate the volunteers become about trying to create awareness around the world and assist us in any way they can once they get home.

Rhino Jodi with her calf Jimbo. (Courtesy Lynne MacTavish)

Rhino Jodi with her calf Jimbo. (Courtesy Lynne MacTavish)

One of the biggest highlights was finding Jimbo with the February team. He was only a few days old and his mother Jodi had brought him out to show us. The sun was setting and a Cape Turtle Dove was calling and there was not a sound from the volunteers. This was because we were all sitting in awe, staring at this tiny little rhino and recognizing the importance of this new life. To all of us it signified a new beginning and a reason to keep on fighting.

Vigilance and South Africa’s Rhinos

–Dr. Stan Rullman, Earthwatch Research Director

vigilance/vig·i·lance/vijələns/ noun. “The action or state of keeping careful watch for possible danger or difficulties”

At the core of Dawn Scott’s rhino project in South Africa, researchers are assessing whether dehorned rhinos exhibit a higher level of vigilance than horned rhinos, particularly solitary or small groups when compared to larger groups.

To assess vigilance in rhinos, you look at their ears.

Dr. Stan Rullman and Lynne MacTavish.

Dr. Stan Rullman and Lynne MacTavish.

The ears of a vigilant rhino are constantly moving, back and forth, always scanning for that snap of twig, that rustle in the grass, a metallic click… even the alarm call of other animals, that might give away the presence of a threat. Overly vigilant animals are often so at the expense of other important behaviors, like eating. They also exhibit elevated levels of corticosteroids – stress hormones – that are critical in fueling a fight or flight response, and debilitating when such elevated levels become the standard that defines a creature’s “base state.”

To assess vigilance in those in charge of the protection of rhinos, though, you must look at their eyes.

The eyes of the staff at the private game reserve where the majority of the research takes place, and where the rhinos are all dehorned, all bear the marks of sleeplessness, of fatigue, and above all else, of a deep concern for the safety of those in their charge. Nightly anti-poaching patrols, daytime check-ins of mothers and their calves, day after day, and week after week, take their toll. Dark circles, bloodshot whites and an overall weariness still don’t mask out their commitment to maintain that vigilance against those that want those horns, for those eyes have all seen what happens when that vigilance wanes. Those eyes have all seen the coarsely hacked face of animals they have known since birth. They have seen, as the sun parches and the skin cracks open, the still form of that next generation that will not have a chance to see the sun, or to see a moonrise over the South African veld.

A rhino on a preserve in South Africa. (Courtesy Alex Kallend)

Fighting to Save a Species

–Cassandra Nichols, Earthwatch Australia CEO

IMG_9154 copyI have traveled to many places across the globe and been enchanted by the beauty of our world. From the salt plains of Bolivia to volcanoes in Hawaii, to glaciers in New Zealand and cloud forest in Costa Rica, to tropical beaches in Australia and deserts of Dubai. But Africa will always stand out for me. There is something about the place that seeps into your soul. A longing that you never know you had is awakened. Perhaps it’s because of our ancestry, or perhaps we grew up watching too much David Attenborough and it feels like a second home. Either way, when I had the chance to return to this wild and captivating land, I jumped at it.

Earthwatch’s Conserving Endangered Rhinos in South Africa took me back to Africa not only as a tourist, but as someone who was taking action for the wildlife that I so love. I have been undertaking conservation and scientific research for over 10 years now, and this expedition provided an opportunity to study and learn about one of Earth’s largest herbivores. I was expecting it to be a humbling learning experience, but I did not expect it to evoke so much emotion, to be moved to the degree in which co-lead scientist Lynne MacTavish and her father and reserve manager Dougal MacTavish achieved.

Rhino’s are disappearing. Every four hours, one rhino is killed by illegal poaching.

At this rate, wild rhinos will be extinct by 2026. My children won’t have the opportunity to see this magnificent creature anywhere but a zoo. We are losing the fight, but thanks to people like Lynne and her team, perhaps there is a chance. Their strength to continue fighting for this species in the face of adversity, to put their lives on the line (literally) and to never give up, even when surrounded by corruption and deceit, is one of the most inspiring tales I have ever encountered.

The project opened my eyes to the real rhino horn poaching crisis and challenged my views on private game reserves and the wildlife trade itself. In Africa, political difficulties prevent the creation of new national parks, so future protection of habitat and species is up to individuals. The role of private game reserves in African conservation is significantly underestimated. It was private game reserves that brought the white rhino numbers back from a staggering >50 individuals in 1971. Now, it is these owners who are fighting the battle again to save the species.

Scott - credit MacTavish Lynne (14) copy

From Joshua Tree to South Africa

–Kristen Lalumiere, Field Crew Lead on the Earthwatch expedition Saving Joshua Tree’s Desert Species

As a field crew lead on the Earthwatch project Saving Joshua Tree’s Desert Species, I was interested to see how another project’s lead scientist and field crew relayed science and their project objectives to the participants, as well as how they ran their daily schedules and activities. From this, my aim was to see how we might be able to make our own project in Joshua Tree National Park better. So, on January 1st, I found myself on a plane en route to the project Conserving Endangered Rhinos in South Africa.

Mother rhino and calf photographed during expedition. (Courtesy Kristen Lalumiere)As luck would have it, my expedition group ended up being the 50th group held on the private wildlife reserve of this project’s study site. Given the level and years of experience the reserve team and field crew had with groups, I learned a lot from them that I have been able to apply to our own project here in the Southern California desert. Little details made a huge difference to our overall experience. They worked diligently to ensure we were cared for and knew what would help make our daily lives easier (especially when temperatures topped out at 125°F for a day or two). They made sure we understood what to expect throughout our time in the reserve and they conveyed clearly how our time and efforts were contributing to rhino conservation.

Even with how vastly different the two projects are, they both allow for the opportunity for people to step up and take action to help make this world a better place.

I saw firsthand how being a participant is a far different experience than being part of a project’s field crew. Being able to participate in a study that directly contributes to rhino conservation was a dream come true for me and changed my life. I felt a part of something bigger – more global – and that my efforts were having a direct positive impact on our Earth. I now have a better understanding of and appreciation for what our own participants experience when they come to the desert and assist us in collecting data on climate change.

A Day in the Life of a Volunteer

–Phoebe Hart, Earthwatch volunteer

Volunteer Phoebe Hart during her time in South Africa.

Volunteer Phoebe Hart during her time in South Africa.

The chance to study such magnificent creatures as rhinos with Earthwatch was an opportunity of a lifetime; and the heroic research team conducting the ground-breaking and innovative research are some of the most passionate and inspirational people I have ever encountered. Each day was a treasure. Waking up in the grey light of dawn, the sound of great horned antelope drinking from a nearby dam intermingles with songbirds singing to their mates. The day is spent tracking and studying, quietly observing rhinos in the diverse environment in which they are vitally intertwined. The adventure and awe of the South African wilderness is breathtaking.

I gained an extensive knowledge of the deep emotional sensitivity and intelligence of these mighty animals and their integral role in the ecosystem.

The rhino’s sentient strength is moving and powerful; traits mirrored by the field scientists and rangers that are fighting day and night to protect them. From the moment I arrived, the Earthwatch team and field researchers welcomed me and other volunteers into their world, eagerly teaching and demonstrating their distinctive skills and expertise with passion and enthusiasm. I learned the foundations of managing a highly complex and biodiverse wildlife reserve, as well as tracking the details of ecological health through organisms as small as a dung beetle and as large as a giraffe. The conservation team led by example, representing courage, kindness, selflessness, and resilience. They quickly instilled a keen sense of environmental stewardship in all of us.

This expedition granted me the ability to partake in one of the most important environmental crises of our time. It was an inspirational and transformative experience to participate in this Earthwatch program to help save the critically endangered rhino, and to work alongside the heroes and heroines on the frontlines of the fight. I will forever be grateful for the lifelong friendships I developed, the ecological knowledge I gained, and the rekindled passion for wildlife conservation that is embodied by my newfound love and admiration of one of the world’s most distinctive ecosystem engineers — the rhino.

Three rhinos on the preserve. (Courtesy Phoebe Hart)

Hurricanes, Zika Virus, Appendicitis: How does Earthwatch Assess Risk and Promote Safety in the Field?

By Dianna Bell

Risk is an inherent part of traveling, and even more broadly, risk is present in every aspect of our lives. At Earthwatch, we’re committed to caring for the safety and welfare of each and every one of our volunteers who dedicate their time to supporting environmental research throughout the world. Whether you’re tracking endangered wildlife in Malawi or responding to a climate crisis in the Peruvian Amazon, unexpected incidents can happen. However, we believe that through careful risk management and diligent planning, Earthwatch volunteers can have a rewarding, educational, and inspirational experience.

Bodmer -Credit Pablo Puertas (11) copy

You might be wondering how, exactly, Earthwatch responds when there’s a safety incident in the field — a medical emergency, perhaps, or a dangerous weather event. How do we assess risks related to terrorist activities near project sites, or threats from disease epidemics, such as Zika virus? To help answer these questions, we’ve collected a few stories of actual incidents that occurred in the field, and the ways in which Earthwatch, our insurance partners at Healix International, and the scientists and staff in the field handled the care of these individuals. We’ve also featured four scenarios related to worries we hear from our volunteers, and what Earthwatch’s response would be in each case.

Volunteer Perspectives:

A Medical Emergency in Malawi

A herd of elephants at the Majete Wildlife Reserve.

A herd of elephants at the Majete Wildlife Reserve.

In the fall of 2015, Patricia Leroy was on the expedition Animals of Malawi in the Majete Wildlife Reserve. She was riding with her teammates in a safari truck, when the vehicle hit a bump, she fell off, landed on her back, and lost consciousness for about three minutes. Despite her traumatic experience, Patricia reflects on Earthwatch’s response to the incident with positivity.

“The group leader made dozens of phone calls and stayed with me [at the clinic] until it was time to go to bed. She came back the next morning to check on how I was feeling and only then returned to the base camp. That day, I was contacted by Healix, Earthwatch’s insurance partner, who wanted to transfer me to South Africa because hospitals there had access to better equipment.

“So I was transferred by air ambulance to Johannesburg airport and from there, directly to a private clinic. I stayed there another ten days, benefiting from physiotherapy every day, until I felt well enough to fly back to Switzerland.

“During this entire period, there was not a day when I was not contacted by people from Earthwatch in Malawi and in the U.S., or by the person from Healix who was in charge of my case. I was very well taken care of, not only medically but also psychologically. Everybody was so kind and helpful. It may sound strange to say this, but I found it an interesting and positive experience!

“I’m now only waiting to have fully recovered to take part in another Earthwatch mission.”

Hurricane Joaquin Strikes in the Bahamas

A volunteer holds a sea turtle on our expedition Tracking Sea Turtles in the Bahamas.

A volunteer holds a sea turtle on our expedition Tracking Sea Turtles in the Bahamas.

When Hurricane Joaquin escalated from a Category 1 to a Category 3 storm within days of the start of the expedition Tracking Sea Turtles in the Bahamas in October of 2015, Earthwatch Lead Scientist Annabelle Brooks worked with staff in the U.S. to ensure the safety of the volunteers.

Even though the storm was due to pass through the Bahamas by late on the day the Earthwatch participants were scheduled to arrive, the field station would be running with very limited staff, the water would be too murky to conduct research, and the roads to and from the airport ran the risk of being flooded.

Earthwatch proactively cancelled the team to avoid safety hazards brought about by potential damage from the storm. The risk, in this case, was too high and the safety of the volunteers was Earthwatch’s priority. The volunteers who were booked on that expedition were offered the option of joining a different team or another expedition of their choosing.

Appendicitis in Brazil

In May of 2015, EY fellow and Earthwatch volunteer Aric Johnstone was trekking through Brazil when he started to experience severe stomach cramps. He was immediately taken to the hospital, where he was diagnosed with appendicitis.

EY Fellows take measurements of the many species of birds in Brazil.

EY Fellows take measurements of the many species of birds in Brazil.

“Earthwatch was, simply put, remarkable in handling an unexpected emergency trip to the hospital in rural Brazil for appendix surgery,” he said. “From start to finish, I felt completely safe and in good hands while one of my project managers stayed with me night and day for four days until I was released — even at the expense of quality sleep as they only had a small reclining sofa!

“I was also reassured by the fact that Earthwatch performs a comprehensive emergency assessment at all of their sites to know where the preferred hospitals are and to know exactly what to do in emergencies like mine. I really can’t say enough about the care and attention I was provided, and reflect on the experience with great fondness and appreciation of the Earthwatch team!”

Safety Scenarios & Responses from Kim Cassello, Earthwatch Director of Risk Management:

Scenario 1: I am interested in traveling to Central and South America, but I worry about contracting Zika. What are the risks associated with expeditions in this area? Is it likely I will get Zika?

Earthwatch monitors the latest health risks in all of the countries in which we work through several international resources, such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). We encourage our volunteers to base their travel plans off of recommendations provided by these institutions.

The Zika virus causes a mild 2-7 day illness in most people with symptoms including low-grade fever, joint pain, rash, headache, and eye pain. The risk of contracting the Zika virus is relatively low for most people, however, there is evidence that its effect on unborn children is more serious. Women who are pregnant or expecting to become pregnant are advised to consider postponing travel to areas where the virus is active due to the increased risk of microcephaly in the fetus.

Scenario 2: I booked an expedition to Kenya, but I’m thinking of canceling due to past terrorism activity in the country. How does Earthwatch monitor this activity and what would happen in the instance a terror attack occurred while I was in the field?

Earthwatch monitors global events continuously via daily health and security updates for the countries in which we work from non-profit and private sources as well as several government sources — including the U.K. Foreign Commonwealth Office, U.S. State Department and Australia’s Smart Traveller, embassy websites, and more. Our scientists and field staff provide another invaluable resource for security information, as many of them live and work in the project regions. They offer an “on the ground” perspective as well as monitor local media.

Earthwatch maintains a Threat Assessment for every country in which we work. This is a country-level assessment of political and security concerns, geo hazards, availability of healthcare, infrastructure and more. Countries and regions in which we will not work due to safety concerns are added to our “No Go” List. Every project also undergoes a Risk Assessment — which is a project-specific evaluation of the site location, any hazards present, and recommended mitigation measures.

exploring lions - two baby giraffes

In the event a security incident did occur, Earthwatch has several resources to help us respond in an effective and efficient way.

First, we advise you to remain in your hotel room and call Earthwatch’s 24-hour assistance line. If you are already at the field site, the Earthwatch scientist would refer to the project’s Emergency Response Plan and call the local authorities as well as Earthwatch’s 24-hour assistance line.

Our 24-hour on-call Duty Officer would then convene the other members of our International Incident Management Team to respond to the incident. This is a team of dedicated and trained Earthwatch staff who are ready to assist in the event of an incident in the field.

Earthwatch will liaise with you, project staff, the appropriate authorities, embassies, and security advisors to stay abreast of the situation and determine next steps. If action is deemed necessary, our Security Assistance Providers Control Risks Group (CRG) would initiate an evacuation. Emergency evacuations are covered under our Travel insurance policy.

Scenario 3: As a single woman traveling alone, I am afraid to travel outside of the country. I worry about being separated from the group due to travel delays. What safety and communications measures does Earthwatch have in place?

Earthwatch has a 24-hour Duty Officer line available to all participants and project staff. The Duty Officer is a trained Earthwatch staff person who is ready to help at any time, day or night. Travel delays are common and the Duty Officer can offer travel assistance, arrange transport to the field, and relay messages to project staff so they will know exactly where and when to meet you.

All members of the Earthwatch family also have access to Healix International, a world-class travel assistance provider. Participants and project staff can call Healix directly or the Duty Officer can do so on their behalf. Healix can help with adjusting travel arrangements, lost passports, medical emergencies and more.

Scenario 4: I am a parent with a teen who is traveling alone for the first time. I’m worried about my child’s safety while in the field. How well are the field staff trained as far as first-aid goes and what kind of background checks are performed?

All teen team facilitators are trained in first aid as appropriate to the project — this includes basic first aid, lifeguard, or wilderness first aid depending on the location, activities and proximity to medical care. In addition, many project staff are trained in first aid as appropriate to the project, but each project is different. On some projects, the personnel are already trained and on others, Earthwatch funds training for key members of staff. Our target is one or two trained staff on each team.

Teen team facilitators and project staff on teen teams undergo background checks which look for any records of criminal or sexual offenses. Background checks are renewed every three years.

Every project has been assessed for risk and has specific mitigation measures in place. Every project also has a detailed Emergency Response Plan in place in the event an issue occurs.

Eisenberg - credit Scott Kania (48) copy

I never came back…

By Luc Bourassa, Alcoa Foundation Earthwatch Fellow

Alcoa is more than a leader in aluminum production; it’s a leader in sustainability. As an Earthwatch partner, the company has created the Alcoa Employee Sustainability Fellowship program, an initiative that sends 25 Alcoa employees per year on weeklong Earthwatch expeditions in Brazil, Canada, and France. The goal of the initiative is to raise employees’ awareness of key climate change and sustainability issues as they relate to forests, carbon, and ecosystem services, and to empower them to become advocates for Alcoa’s commitment to sustainability. In 2012, Luc Bourassa was awarded this fellowship and it changed his mindset in surprising ways.

Alcoa Foundation Earthwatch Fellow Luc Bourassa measuring trees during his expedition in Brazil.

I came back from my Earthwatch experience almost four years ago. In the summer of 2012, I spent a full week in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, measuring trees, counting monkeys, and making new friends.

I came back from Brazil almost four years ago but, come to think of it, I actually never came back. The experience changed me in such a way that I am not today the same person I was when I left. That’s what Earthwatch does to you.

I was one of the lucky Alcoa employees who received the opportunity to join an Earthwatch expedition. The experience is quite unsettling, in a good way. You figure it is going to be all about the forest, the plants, the river, or the frogs… that you are going to learn so many things about monkeys, dolphins, bugs, or plants. You get all excited about a full week out there, unwired.

And then you board a plane for the return home, and it hits you: the experience was actually about you, and about your relationship with the world.

Not a week goes by that I don’t think back to that experience, to the friends I made, many of whom I’m still in touch with today, but mostly about the things I learned that I try to apply in my daily life, at home with my wife Stéphanie and our three kids, and through my community engagement.

Teen fellows Amélie and Myriam with their team on an expedition in Puerto Rico.

Teen fellows Amélie and Myriam with their team on an expedition in Puerto Rico.

Because, once you understand that what happens in Brazil can have an impact thousands of miles from there, and that whatever decisions you make today will bear consequences – small or large – for years to come, you start acting differently. You start worrying about the little things. You see that the needed changes are as much about the big corporations as they are about individual citizens.

You may be just one small piece of the puzzle, but that puzzle is incomplete if you’re not a part of it.

I came back from Brazil wanting to make a difference. I had the strong belief that I needed to pay it forward. To multiply what I received. To awaken young minds and fully engage them in that mindset as they become tomorrow’s leaders.

Elisabeth and Kelsy studied whales and dolphins in California.

Elisabeth and Kelsy studied whales and dolphins in California.

So upon my return, as a board member of a local NGO involved in sustainability issues, I designed – along with Earthwatch staffers – an initiative that would provide funding for two teenagers a year from my community to participate in Earthwatch expeditions. I pitched it to the board, but they had some initial reservations: What difference would two teenagers make? What would they learn across the globe that they could use back home?

I was prepared. Two teenagers a year for 20 years adds up to 40 teenagers – 40 engaged teenagers who will become teachers, lawyers, and city counsellors, who will indeed make a difference! I told them about my own experience: traveling to Brazil gave me context, but the real lessons had been learned from within.

Alexy and Naomie in the Pyrenees Mountains.

Alexy and Naomie in the Pyrenees Mountains.

The board members agreed to a three-year pilot. In the summer of 2013, 2014, and 2015, we sent Elisabeth, Kelsy, Naomie, Alexy, Amélie and Myriam to California (Whales and Dolphins Under the California Sun), the French Pyrenees (Wildlife in the Changing Andorran Pyrenees), and Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico’s Rainforest).

I put all six individuals on the plane myself and I lunched with all six upon their return. I know that it made a difference in their lives and has helped to shape the adults they are now becoming. They are now Earthwatch advocates. We involve each pair of fellows in the following year’s selection process and they now want the program to grow as much as I do. We were recently rewarded with good news. The board has confirmed funding for a second three-year cycle!

All of that started four years ago in the Brazilian jungle because my employer had – and still has – the belief that we can make a difference, one individual at a time.

And because a seed was planted, took root, and has grown ever since.

I came back from Brazil four years ago, but I never really came back. And I know that any Earthwatch fellow will tell you the exact same thing. Although the names, the places and the stories may not be the same, the change they impart will be.

That’s what Earthwatch does to you.